Anatomy of the Shoulder Bones

Anatomy of the Shoulder Bones

Previously on Proko.. Skelly sees Skella.
It’s love at first sight. He tries to seduce her with questionable pickup lines. She’s
not impressed. He gives her a flower. They hug. Skelly gets pregnant! Skella pulls a
rib, they swordfight! Stan has bones too! This week, there’s drama in the Proko house.
The new episode starts now! Hello! I’m Stan Prokopenko, you’re watching
Proko. We’ve already studied the spine, pelvis and rib-cage. This lesson on the shoulder
girdle, will complete the bones of the torso. Very soon we’ll move on to muscles! Simple Structure of the Clavicle Let’s begin with the clavicle, because that’s
where the shoulder begins. A clavicle in its least foreshortened position, is about one
cranial unit… more or less, which is about the same length of the sternum… more or
less. That’s the advantage of having them near each
other on the front. They’re convenient to compare. But unless we’re looking at the chest from
the front, one of these is likely to be foreshortened. So we need to think of clavicles as fore-shortenable
sticks 4 shorten-able sticks? What? No! No Skelly… They are FORE-shortenable.
Meaning, they can be foreshortened. But a clavicle is not a straight stick. It
has three parts, and they are offset like this: In fact, when you put them together, they
make the shape of a Cupid’s bow If love is not your thing, the clavicles also
look like a pair of bicycle handlebars. And since they wrap around the base of the
neck like the collar of a shirt, we call them collarbones. That’s the first bone of the
shoulder girdle: the clavicle. Simple Structure of the Scapula Now let’s move to the dominant bone of the
shoulder girdle: the scapula. The scapula is also known as the shoulder blade. We can simplify it as a triangle that’s about
a cranial unit high, and about a cranial unit wide, and when the scapulae are in the neutral
anatomical position, they are about a cranial unit apart… more or less. Here’s a comparison that may help. The scapula
is about the size of a cupped hand, which conveniently matches its concavity to the
convexity of the rib cage. The scapula is all one bone, but for artists,
it has two distinct sections. The body of the blade is here, mostly deep below the surface,
except this medial ridge. The spine of the scapula is almost a bone of its own. It sticks
out like a trowel handle that you can tap along the surface. That’s the spine of the scapula… Sub-cutaneous
and super-important. Now, when we combine the scapula and clavicle,
they sit on the rib cage like shoulder pads. The rib cage is thinnest at the top end, but
with the shoulders, the thorax is widest at the top. The shoulder girdle is usually bigger in men
than women, though it might not give any advantage in a fight… Anatomical Details of the Clavicle Where do you think the arm begins? No, ‘dog’ is not the correct answer. The
arm begins at the pit of the neck! This is the only bone-to-bone connection of arm to
the trunk. The rest of the shoulder girdle never touches the rib cage – a network of
muscles lies between them and secures them together. The pit of the neck is simple, but it has
some pit-falls… sorry. You may know that the sternomastoid tendons
make a V shape in there, but only when they’re tensed, and they’re not always tensed. Watch
for a box-shaped pocket… Don’t place them too close together. Clavicles
don’t touch each other. They attach at the corners of the manubrium, spread out a good
two-fingers-distance from the center. An eyeball could fit in there. Ligaments strap the clavicles to the sternum.
They allow it to rotate on its ellipsoid joint, and smooth out the bumpiness. So this area
is usually smooth. Clavicles are subcutaneous all the way across.
They anchor muscles from the neck and chest, and serve as very important landmark lines. Anatomical Details of the Scapula When we get to the end of the clavicle, we
reach the Acromion Process. It seems like an extension of the clavicle, but it’s actually
an extension of the scapula – the furthest reach of the spine of the scapula. The acromion
process is a flat rectangular platform that “steps down” from the clavicle. The spine on a human scapula twists from back
to top. This means the spine of the scapula is a complex
plane, like a ribbon on a cylinder. This may be hard to draw, but it’s valuable.
That rolling plane affects the surface, and helps an artist know how the light changes
it twists. Now, here’s the super important thing about
the scapula. The blade, specifically this medial border, and the spine are the primary
landmark lines. They make a fixed angle, more than 90°, and when the scapula moves, that
angle stays fixed… So, how the heck do we find these lines on
a model? Where’s the scapula in this crazy mess of bumps? A lot of the scapula is covered
with a mesh of muscles, but these lines will always be visible. In some poses, especially
on muscular or heavy people we’ll see them as indentations. The trapezius attaches along
the spine of the scapula. Rhomboids attach along the side. A group of scapular muscles
sit on the inside of the blade. And the deltoid attaches along the bottom of the spine.(NEED
TO RERECORD) In other poses and especially on very lean people, the bones project outward,
since the volume of the muscles is thin or stretched. Motion Before we look at motion, let’s ask why we
even need a shoulder. Why do we even need a shoulder? Well, obviously to move our arms, which place
our hands wherever they should be… or shouldn’t be. An arm stuck to a ribcage couldn’t do much
beyond flopping around. A scapula allows movement because it has a ball & socket joint. The head of the humerus is the ball. The Glenoid
Cavity is the socket. The Glenoid Cavity faces the front. The ball of the humerus faces the
back. That means we can move our arms forward more easily than we can move them backward. Most people can lift their arms up to about
level without moving the shoulder blade… much. That’s called Glenohumeral movement.
If we extend laterally or anteriorly it eventually reaches its limit when the humerus hits the
acromion process. That means the higher we raise our arms, the
more the shoulder girdle does the work. When the scapula moves on the thorax, it’s
called Scapulothoracic movement. Here’s how it works. Lateral rotation brings the corner of the
blade out toward the side. Medial rotation brings it toward the middle. Elevation lifts
the shoulder straight up. Depression brings it back down. There’s very little room for
depressing the shoulder from the neutral position. Protraction slides the scapula forward around
the rib cage. Retraction slides it back around the rib cage. Finally, there’s Anterior
and Posterior tilting. If you’re one of those weirdos that likes to scare your friends
by popping your shoulder blade out, then you are experienced Anterior tilter. Stop that
please… It’s scary. We can also combine movements and roll the
shoulders around. But it’s not just the scapula moving. The
clavicle comes along for the ride. They’re connected by ligaments at the plate joint,
but there’s a little play between them. Each clavicle rotates independently from the other
at Sternoclavicular joint. So, pay attention to the angles of the clavicles and look for
motion there too. Motion The Motion of the Scapula. Oh no! We’re
out of time… Well, to learn about the impressive motions of the scapula, head on over to
In the premium anatomy course, each lesson has extended videos, more drawing examples,
and 3d models that you can rotate and draw from any angle. Really check it out! I’m
very proud of the premium course. Assignment First, draw the ribcage. Then, draw the shoulder
girdle on top of the ribcage. Draw around to the other side, ghosting it as it goes
around. Look for angles and landmarks, and draw them as three-dimensional forms. We’ll
need to master this before we include muscles. Think about it – the positions of the bones
determine the shape of the muscles. When we can draw the clavicle and scapula as forms,
we have the underlying structure that shapes the shoulders. If you like this video, don’t be all selfish,
share it with your friends! And if you want to be updated about new videos click this
button or go to That’s it! Thanks for drawing. If you’re posting
your drawings on social networks use the hashtag #proko or post them in one of the promo Facebook
groups on Hey have you seen my new App, Skelly – Poseable
Anatomy Model for Artists? Go to or Click this button to get it on iOS or Android.

100 Replies to “Anatomy of the Shoulder Bones”

  1. Contrary to some, the cheesy humor makes me laugh a lot, sometimes a little too much haha!

    These are some of the greatest lectures I've encountered.

  2. I like the skelly interaction. They are short breaks in the video that give me time to process the learning part before moving on without having to manually pause the video.

  3. I love your videos , i always did and still do ,, i'm fine art student from egypt ,, i wanted to buy your premium but its too damn expensive 600 pounds for one lesson just too much ,, i'm not sayin low their prices but just give more info on your videos here ,, i dont do comments at all so i hope you read it and consider it ..

  4. Unrelated to the content and topic of this video, what what mic do you use for your videos? Thanks for any info. And great videos. I've been watching.

  5. I think the gags make a great memo tool haha. Try forgetting that a clavicle looks like a cupid's bow now…

  6. Thank you so much for these videos, I've never had a course on anatomy that was specifically tailored to artists so these perspectives and tips are immensely helpful.

    I also haven't seen a vid in a while so the Skelly & Skella skits are a little distracting, but they're fun and help to break up the monotony of the lesson. What Vadosity said below is basically it ( but I don't mind the sketches at all, I love your videos for the valuable information you share first and foremost, but the second best thing about them is that always you add your own personality and humor to them that adds a genuine honesty that's nice to see. (Some of them [the Skelly sketches] are a little risque, but my point is don't let the youtube comments get to you, maybe lower the amount of Skelly clips, but don't get rid of them completely..!)

    Also I bought the Skelly app recently, and it's so helpful! Thank you so much for making it! and I love how excited you are about getting to muscles at 0:50! That is also my reaction 😀 Thank you for giving back to and helping young artists, and making learning anatomy for art fun!

  7. Proko did you know Skelly has a cousin known as Skully ,who's bones like him,who's a cousin of Meat from Mortal Kombat. So in some way Skelly is related to Mortal Kombat.

  8. Hello mister proko, I have been watching your videos and your playlist on drawing basics and i learning slowly but still learning some stuff.  So I was wondering how I can practice getting better at drawing more and when I asked some of my friends who are good at drawing they said I should get the Andrew Loomis Figure Drawing For All It's Worth since that's how they learned.  Should I get it because I'm worried I might be overwhelmed  by terms I have no idea what they mean.   I know nothing of drawing and i'm worried it may only be for people who already know the basics.  So I was just wondering if you think I should buy it or if I should just find other ways to get better at drawing

  9. Hey me again sorry but i was wondering what exactly this book will teach me.  Like will it tell me how to draw the male body or only show examples of it expecting me to already know it.  Sorry if i'm bothering you.

  10. Your videos are really helpful!!!! the one of the eyes were like WOOO because I always suck at drawing eyes, I also draw somethings on instagram and hashtang it with Proko and some of them not but  :)@fqo12 if you like to check it out. The skelly app was just GENIUUUSSSSSSS REALLY, sometimes is difficult to imagine some posses when they come out from the imagination. Thank you for this AWESOME channel!!

  11. Some people are born without collar bones (clavicles) and yet seem not only to have functional arms but the ability to touch their shoulders together in front of them. Not to mention can-crushing…

    Meanwhile (for people who do have collar bones, but whose brains are malfunctioning) there is such a thing as a sub-clavicle piercing… Grossly enough. I just found out about that. The bar (made of flexible stuff) actually passes under the bone.

  12. "Skelly gets PREGNANT "


  13. "Four shortenable sticks?"
    "What the ** Skelly, no wonder Skella doesn't like you"
    I love how cute you put so much personalities and fun into these traditionally serious anatomy lessons!

  14. This is really helpful. Premium is out of budget at the moment – I foolishly spent the money on a fine art class that has proven to be pretty much useless as the instructor does not teach.

  15. That intro had me laughing! XD
    These videos are so dang helpful, when I get some funds I think Imma get the premium. 🙂
    Thanks, Proko!

  16. Can you consider not using any humor or music intro it's so irritating when trying to memorize or watching the videos over again😳

  17. You REALLY need to fix the captions on your videos. Not only were these not in sync, but they leave out important information and left (NEED TO RECORD) or something in the middle of one sentence. This is very unprofessional and I feel bad for deaf artists who are trying to learn with these videos, because frankly it's rather incomprehensible at times.

  18. Finally bought the Skelly app. Totally worth it, especially considering everything I've learned from following this channel. A lot of nice features you wouldn't necessarily expect, including the ability to switch between robo-Skelly and regular bony Skelly. At some point in the future, if you have the resources, it might be nice to see the app include child, women, and maybe even some basic animal skeletons. Thanks! This is really nice.

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