da Vinci Rediscovered – Carmen Bambach | Tony Guida’s NY

da Vinci Rediscovered – Carmen Bambach | Tony Guida’s NY


>>HELLO, I’M TONY GUIDA. THIS IS MY NEW YORK. IT’S NOT OFTEN I GET TO WELCOME ROCK STARS TO THIS PROGRAM, BUT TODAY IS SPECIAL. DR. CARMEN BAUMBACH IS A SUPERNOVA OF THE ART WORLD, AN INTERNATIONALLY RECOGNIZED EXPERT ON THE ITALIAN RENAISSANCE AND RENOWNED LEONARDO DA VINCI SCHOLAR. SHE HAS JUST PUBLISHED HER MAGNUM OPUS, A FOUR VOLUME MONOGRAM 24 YEARS IN THE MAKING TITLED “LEONARDO DA VINCI REDISCOVERED,” MARKING THE 500TH ANNIVERSARY OF HIS DEATH. SHE IS HERE TO SHARE HER DISCOVERIES, NEXT. ♪ [THEME MUSIC] ♪>>CARMEN BAUMBACH, IT IS MY HONOR TO HAVE YOU ON THIS PROGRAM. AND I SHOULD OF COURSE MENTION YET ANOTHER OF YOUR CREDENTIALS. YOU ARE A CURATOR OF DRAWINGS AND PRINTS AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM AND HAVE BEEN IN THAT ROLE FOR — WHAT, SINCE 1995?>>THAT’S RIGHT. ALMOST AS LONG AS I HAVE BEEN WRITING ON LEONARDO.>>EXACTLY. 24 YEARS. YOU PUT A LIFETIME OF SCHOLARSHIP INTO THIS MAGNIFICENT WORK, THESE FOUR VOLUMES. I WAS CHARMED TO SEE YOU REFER TO IT AS YOUR NIGHT JOB, AS AN ART HISTORIAN. TALK ABOUT THAT.>>WELL, DURING MY DAY, I DO ALL THE CURATORIAL RESPONSIBILITIES, INCLUDING LOTS OF RESEARCH, EXHIBITIONS, ACQUISITIONS, AND MANAGING THE COLLECTION AT THE MET. EVEN DURING MY DAY JOB, I DID QUITE A FEW EXHIBITIONS.>>WITH A MAGNIFICENT SHOW THAT IS ON NOW AT THE MET, ST. JEROME PRAYING IN THE WILDERNESS. WE WILL COME BACK TO THAT. SO YOUR NIGHT JOB –>>HAS BEEN TO WORK ON THIS, AND OF COURSE I DIDN’T START OUT THINKING I WOULD BE WRITING FOUR VOLUMES ON LEONARDO, AND I’M SURE MY PUBLISHER YALE UNIVERSITY PRESS DID NOT WANT THAT OR EVEN ANTICIPATE IT. THIS GREW AS A LABOR OF LOVE. I SUPPOSE I CAN MAKE THE ANALOGY TO MOTHERHOOD, NO ONE SETS OUT TO HAVE QUADRUPLETS.>>NOT OFTEN.>>THAT’S RIGHT. AND BASICALLY WHAT HAPPENS IS THAT I VERY MUCH BELIEVE IN THIS BIOGRAPHICAL APPROACH TO FIGURES OF HIS HISTORY, AND I FEEL VERY STRONGLY THAT BIOGRAPHY INFORMS WHO WE ARE, SO WHY NOT INFORM THE WAY THAT ARTISTS ARE? IT WAS IN THIS PROCESS OF DOCUMENTING LEONARDO AND HIS WORK AND HOW IT ALL FITS THAT YOU END UP WITH FOUR VOLUMES.>>WAS THERE AN IMPETUS FOR YOU TO BEGIN THIS? YOU ARE A LEONARDO SCHOLAR AND I ASSUME YOU LOOK TO THE FUTURE AND SAID IN 2019 IT WILL BE 500 YEARS — BUT WAS THERE SOME SPECIFIC IMPETUS TO UNDERTAKING THIS?>>2019 WAS AN ACCIDENT AS A PUBLICATION. WE HAD ALWAYS HOPED IT WOULD COME OUT MUCH SOONER. IT ALL BEGAN WHEN I ORGANIZED THE EXHIBITION AT THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART IN 2003, IT WAS AN EXHIBITION ENTITLED LEONARDO DA VINCI, MASTER DRAFTSMAN. IN BRINGING TOGETHER THOSE HANDWRITTEN WORKS, IT GAVE ME A SENSE OF HAVING THE LABORATORY TO EXPLORE. IT WAS INTERESTING BECAUSE THAT WAS WHEN I COMPLETELY RETHOUGHT WHAT I WAS DOING AS A RESEARCHER OF LEONARDO DA VINCI’S WORK, AND IT WAS REALLY INTERESTING TO SEE THAT THE ONLY WAY FOR ME AS A SCHOLAR WAS TO EXPLORE THIS BIOGRAPHICAL ACCOUNT. IN OTHER WORDS, IT WAS THE ONLY WAY TO DESCRIBE HOW HE DEVELOPED AS A THINKER AND A PERSON, CONSIDERING HIS FAMILY HISTORY SEEMED TO BE REALLY IMPORTANT BECAUSE HE WAS LEFT-HANDED, HE WAS ALSO ILLEGITIMATELY BORN. TO ME, THIS SEEMED LIKE SOMETHING THAT WAS GOING TO BE WORTHWHILE, AT LEAST PULLING IT INTO THIS LARGER UNDERSTANDING OF LEONARDO.>>AS THE TITLE OF THE BOOK SAYS, YOU REDISCOVERED HIM. I WANT TO COME BACK TO THAT AND EXPLORE IT A LOT MORE WITH YOU. BUT FIRST I WANT YOU TO TELL ME A STORY. YOU ARE A SENIOR AT YALE, MAJORING IN ART HISTORY. YOU SEE A DRAWING BY MICHELANGELO. THE ART WORLD AT THAT POINT BELIEVES IT IS AN ARMPIT –>>OH, MY GOD.>>I WANT YOU TO TELL THAT STORY. THIS WOMAN, AS A SENIOR IN HER SALAD DAYS, TELL THE STORY.>>I WAS VERY INTERESTED IN WRITING THIS SENIOR THESIS, AND IT WAS KIND OF KOOKY. I WANTED TO EXPLORE HOW THE SISTINE CEILING COMPOSITIONALLY FOLLOWS HOURS OF ENERGY AND THERE WAS THIS SENSE OF POTENTIAL ENERGY THAT REALLY SHOWED US HOW MICHELANGELO CONCEIVED THIS EVER EVOLVING NARRATIVE TO CULMINATE ON THE ALTER. SO IN ORDER TO DO MY WORK IN DISCOVERING ALL THIS AND TRYING TO ARTICULATE THIS, I WAS LOOKING THROUGH BOOKS ON MICHELANGELO’S DRAWINGS. I WANTED TO SEE THE DRAWINGS. I COME ACROSS THIS PHOTOGRAPH OF A DRAWING, AND I READ THAT IT SAYS IT’S AN ARMPIT AND I GO, THIS IS PUBLISHED UPSIDE DOWN.>>HOW DID THAT HIT YOU RIGHT AWAY?>>I HAD STUDIED — I HAD WANTED TO BE A VISUAL ARTIST, AND SINCE I WAS A KID, I USED TO DRAW THE OLD MASTERS. MY PARENTS, BLESS THEIR HEART, WHEN I GREW UP IN CHILE, WOULD BUY ME A LOT OF ART BOOKS. ONE OF THEM WAS MICHELANGELO AND I WOULD DRAW AFTER THE PROPHET, HAS A VERY SHORTENED HEAD, IN THE SISTINE CEILING AND I WOULD DRAW AFTER THAT PHOTOGRAPH. I KNEW PRETTY WELL WHAT YOU HAVE TO DO IN ORDER TO VISUALIZE AT THE ROUGHEST DRAFT, WHAT A SHORTENED HEAD LOOKS LIKE. THAT’S WHAT I SAW.>>SO YOU ARE LOOKING AT THIS DESCRIBED AS AN ARMPIT->>UPSIDE DOWN.>>YOU SAID, NO. THIS IS->>YES. THIS IS->>THIS PAINTING WAS TURNED AROUND, AND IT REALLY DOES LOOK LIKE A FORESHORTENED HEAD. THAT IS WHAT I SAID. I PUBLISHED IT TWO YEARS LATER AS A HYPOTHESIS. THEN IN 1990, IN MARCH, WHEN THE CLEANING OF THE SISTINE CEILING WAS ALMOST AT THE CONCLUSION, RESTORERS WERE GOING TO START, THERE WAS ACTUALLY SCAFFOLDING BY THE SIDE OF WHERE HAMAN WAS. THE DIRECTOR OF THE RESTORATION WAS REALLY A FANTASTICALLY OPEN PERSON, AND VERY ENCOURAGING OF YOUNG PEOPLE. I WAS PRETTY MUCH STILL A KID.>>YOU WERE 23 WHEN YOU PUBLISHED THIS.>>AND THE DIRECTOR –>>THE DIRECTOR OF THE RESTORATION, I GUESS YOU WOULD CALL IT, AT THE SISTINE CHAPEL, BUYS INTO YOUR HYPOTHESIS, SAYING THAT IT MAKES SENSE.>>YES. IT WAS ALMOST 10 YEARS AFTER I PUBLISHED THE HYPOTHESIS THAT WE CLIMBED ON THE SCAFFOLDING, AND HAD THE FULL-SCALE REPRODUCTION, AND WE WERE ABLE TO PUT IT ON THE FIGURE OF HAMAN, AND IT FIT PERFECTLY. SO, YEAH. IT WAS A PRETTY GOOD HUNCH THAT PAID OFF 10 YEARS LATER.>>I THINK IT WAS MORE THAN A HUNCH. I THINK IT’S AN EARLY EXAMPLE OF YOUR GENIUS.>>IT ALL BEGINS WITH PARENTS WHO EDUCATE YOU, TO SORT OF HAVE A LARGER HORIZON. I HAVE TO COME BACK TO THAT. GROWING UP IN CHILE, WHERE YOU MIGHT SAY THERE ARE NO ITALIAN RENAISSANCE WORKS THERE — THAT DOES NOT MEAN ANYTHING. YOUR PARENTS KIND OF OPEN UP THE WORLD BY FEEDING YOU BEAUTIFUL BOOKS AND ENCOURAGING INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT. BUT IT HAS TO START WHEN YOU ARE A KID.>>THESE FOUR VOLUMES ON LEONARDO ARE JUST INCREDIBLE. SOMETHING LIKE 1500 DRAWINGS AND IMAGES IN THE FOUR VOLUMES. WHAT DO YOU WANT TO TALK ABOUT — THERE IS SO MUCH WE COULD TALK ABOUT. YOU WERE TALKING EARLIER ABOUT HOW YOU APPROACHED IT AND WHY YOU THOUGHT TO APPROACH HIM IN THAT WAY, AND I THINK YOU’VE REFERRED TO THIS AS YOUR ARCHAEOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS. CAN YOU PUT THAT IN WAYS OUR AUDIENCE CAN UNDERSTAND, WHAT YOU WERE DOING AND HOW YOU WERE RE-EXAMINING LEONARDO?>>IF I HAD TO REDEFINE THE METHOD I WOULD SAY IT IS THE BIOGRAPHICAL ARCHEOLOGICAL AND JUST TO EXPLAIN THAT IF WE BELIEVE BIOGRAPHY IS SUCH AN IMPORTANT METHOD, AND I AM COMMITTED TO THAT, THE INFORMATION IS VERY SCATTERED. THERE ARE LOTS OF GAPS IN THE EVIDENCE. THAT IS WHEN THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL ELEMENT COMES IN TO FILL IN THOSE GAPS. THERE ARE MOUNTAINS WRITTEN ABOUT LEONARDO, AND WHAT IS REALLY INTERESTING IS THAT THERE ARE SO MANY MYTHS AS WELL. ONE OF THE THINGS I WANTED TO MAKE SURE WAS HOW TO WE SEPARATE THAT WHICH IS A CONCRETE FACT, FROM A PROBABILITY FROM A POSSIBILITY AND SPECULATION AND PIE-IN-THE-SKY IDEA, AND INTERESTINGLY, TO ME, THE MOST FUNDAMENTAL CONTRIBUTION THAT I COULD GIVE BACK WAS TO SHOW HOW LEONARDO BECAME LEONARDO. IT’S A PROCESS OF DEVELOPMENT, A PROCESS OF EDUCATION, AND ALSO A PROCESS OF HUMANIZING THE GENIUS. WE ASK DIFFERENT QUESTIONS, WE ARE OPENING UP THE FIELD FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS OF RESEARCHERS TO STUDY. THAT IS PART OF THE REASON I WANTED TO CALL THE BOOK REDISCOVERED, BECAUSE IT IS ABOUT OPENING DOORS, NOT SO MUCH CLOSING DOORS.>>I WAS GOING TO ASK YOU ABOUT THE HEAD OF THE YOUNG WOMAN, WHICH IS A STUDY FOR THE ANGEL IN “THE VIRGIN ON THE ROCKS.” WOULD THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THIS?>>I THINK YES, THAT STUDY IS BASED ON A LIFE MODEL, AND THERE IS AN ANIMATION THAT IS CAPTURED IN THE DRAWING, THERE IS ALSO A PSYCHOLOGICAL PRESENCE THAT LEONARDO CAPTURES IN THE DRAWING AND OF COURSE THERE IS A MYSTERIOUS BEAUTY. IT IS BASED ON LIFE, AND THEN WE LOOK AT THE FIGURE THAT CORRESPONDS IN THE PAINTING AND WE NOTICE THAT IT IS HIGHLY IDEALIZED. WHAT WE HAVE SEEN IS THIS PROCESS OF TRANSFORMATION THAT LEONARDO ACHIEVES IN THE PAINTING. ONE OF THE ASPECTS THAT IS REALLY EXTRAORDINARY, ESPECIALLY THOSE THAT ARE ARTISTIC, ARE THE SKETCHES, THE QUICK SKETCHES. LEONARDO ALSO WRITES ABOUT DRAWING AND PAINTING, AND HE TELLS US THAT THE MOST IMPORTANT THING IS TO VERY QUICKLY POUR IDEAS ON THE PAPER. THIS IDEA OF SKETCHING, SKETCHING, SKETCHING WITH THE FURY OF INSPIRATION, HE ALSO MENTIONED THAT THERE IS A SENSE OF CREATIVITY AND SPONTANEITY THAT IS SPILLS ON THE PAGE AND THAT SHOWS US MANY ALTERNATIVE IDEAS, AND LEONARDO WRITES ABOUT SEMICONSCIOUSNESS, THE MOMENT WHEN YOU FIRST AWAKE FROM HEAVY SLEEP, THAT IS THE BEST MOMENT TO DRAW. YOU ARE FRESH, YOU LET YOURSELF EXPRESS YOURSELF ON THE PAPER. THIS IS REALLY VERY REVOLUTIONARY FOR THE TIME. REMEMBER OTHER ARTISTS OF HIS TIME OR EVEN BEFORE WOULD JUST START DRAWING A FIGURE AND BE VERY COMMITTED TO THAT FIGURE. IT BECOMES ABOUT ELABORATING AND RE-ELABORATING.>>HE WAS NEVER SATISFIED. I MEAN, HE CHALLENGED HIMSELF, AND I THINK THE DRAWINGS, AS YOU POINT OUT OUR — THAT’S WHERE YOU STARTED YOUR ANALYSIS, THE REDISCOVERY OF HIM AS THE MAN WHO IS RARELY FINISHING ANYTHING. HE CREATED MAYBE 20 PAINTINGS IN HIS LIFE AND SOME OF THOSE NOT EVEN FINISHED.>>ONE OF THE THINGS I WAS REALLY INTERESTED IN IS PRECISELY THIS PHENOMENON OF NOT FINISHING. ONE OF THE THINGS THAT LED ME INTO TRYING TO REALLY UNDERSTAND WHAT THIS WAS ABOUT WAS BEGINNING WITH THE DRAWINGS. IN LOOKING AT THE DRAWINGS, WHAT BECAME REALLY CLEAR IS THAT LEONARDO CHERISH THE MOMENT OF DISCOVERY, THE MOMENT OF WORK IN PROGRESS, ALWAYS EXPLORING. THE UNFINISHED PAINTINGS ARE ABOUT THIS WORK IN PROGRESS. THIS IS KIND OF THE METAPHYSICAL STATE IN WHICH LEONARDO LIKES TO DWELL AS AN ARTIST AND A THINKER. IN A WAY, THIS IS TURNING THE WHOLE ISSUE INTO A VERY POSITIVE TRAIT. HE SIMPLY DID NOT CARE TO FINISH. THERE’S IS A CERTAIN WILL TO THIS. IF WE THINK ABOUT THE ARTIST BEING COMMITTED TO THE IDEA OF WORK IN PROGRESS –>>AND JUST SO THE AUDIENCE — PERHAPS THOSE WHO DON’T UNDERSTAND — LEONARDO WAS OBVIOUSLY A GENIUS PERFECTIONIST. HE KEPT EXPLORING, AND EVERY TIME HE SOUGHT THE ANSWER TO SOMETHING, IT WOULD LEAD TO MORE QUESTIONS.>>RIGHT>>AND THIS IS WHY HE DIDN’T FINISH. I WANT TO BRING THIS AROUND TO WHAT OVERALL IS THE LEONARDO YOU HAVE REDISCOVERED. WHO IS THIS GUY THAT MAYBE IS SLIGHTLY — WE ARE NOW SEEING HIM IN A DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVE BECAUSE OF YOUR WORK, THESE FOUR VOLUMES.>>I THINK ONE OF THE ASPECTS THAT IS REALLY INTERESTING AND VERY IMPORTANT IS THE EXTENT TO WHICH HIS VISION AND WHAT WAS IN HIS MIND AND WHAT HE HOPED TO ACCOMPLISH WERE MUCH GREATER FROM WHAT ACTUALLY GOT DONE. THE LEGACY OF LEONARDO IS THIS INTENSE INTELLECTUAL AMBITION AND CURIOSITY, AND PERHAPS THIS IS WHAT SPEAKS TO US AS A MODERN PEOPLE, THE IDEA THAT HIS LIFE AND WORK ARE A TESTAMENT TO THE INTELLECTUAL SEARCH, THAT THAT IS ONE OF THE GREATEST LEGACIES THAT LEADS TO MAGICALLY BEAUTIFUL PAINTINGS, EXTRAORDINARY INVESTIGATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY, OF MECHANICS AND ANATOMICAL DRAWINGS, PARTICULARLY IN THE PERIOD OF HIS MATURITY, ARE OF SUCH EXTRAORDINARY SUBTLETY AND VISUAL REASONING AND VISUAL COMMUNICATION, THAT MANY OF THOSE DEVICES THAT HE USES TO ILLUSTRATE ANATOMY ARE STILL USED TODAY IN ANATOMICAL ILLUSTRATION, NO MATTER WHETHER WE HAVE GONE THROUGH THE DIGITAL AGE ARE NOT. WE STILL DO THE LIFTING OF THE SKIN TO LOOK AT THE MUSCLES AND ALL THIS. IN LEONARDO LEADS US THROUGH THAT METHODOLOGY. HE ALSO TELLS US THAT IN ORDER TO UNDERSTAND ANATOMY AND THE BEST POSSIBLE WAY, WE NEED TO LOOK AT IT FROM EIGHT DIFFERENT POINTS OF VIEW AT LEAST. THAT IS WHAT THE CAMERA DOES WHEN WE EMPLOY — EXACTLY. WE UNDERSTAND THAT HE IS A MAN WHO WAS A GENIUS, AHEAD OF HIS TIME, AND IT’S THE PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH TO THESE QUESTIONS AND EQUALLY IMPORTANT, HE WAS TIED TO HIS TIME AND THAT IS PROBABLY THE PART THAT IS HARDEST FOR US TO UNDERSTAND TODAY, IS HOW IS HE A PERSON OF HIS TIME, A THINKER WHO IS COMMITTED AND TO A GREAT EXTENT FETTERED TO THE CONVENTIONAL SYSTEMS OF KNOWLEDGE OF HIS TIME. I FEEL THAT AS A SCHOLAR, HAVING DEMONSTRATED THAT, IT ALLOWS US TO SEE IN A MUCH CLEARER WAY HOW HE TRANSCENDS HIS TIME.>>WE HAVE SO LITTLE TIME AND SO MUCH MORE AND WANT TO TALK ABOUT BUT LET’S SEE IF WE CAN CRAM A COUPLE THINGS IN. THE MONA LISA — GIVE US A QUICK SOMETHING ABOUT THE MONA LISA. EVERYBODY HAS SEEN IT, IN PERSON OR PICTURES. WHAT DO YOU WANT TO TELL US ABOUT THE MONA LISA THAT WE DON’T KNOW?>>I THINK ONE OF THE THINGS THAT IS MOST IMPORTANT ABOUT THE MONA LISA IS TO TRY TO SEE IT AS A PAINTING, AS AN OBJECT, AND TO FORGET IN MANY WAYS THE MYTH FOR THE MOMENT. I HAD THE PRIVILEGE OF BEING ABLE TO SPEND AN ENTIRE DAY WITH THE TEAM AT THE LOUVRE, EXAMINING THE MONA LISA FOR THAT ENTIRE DAY.>>CARMEN HAS HELD THE MONA LISA.>>IT WAS ONE OF THE MOST EXTRAORDINARY THINGS I WILL NEVER FORGET THAT. SEEING HOW THIN THE PANEL OF WOOD THAT IT IS PAINTED ON, SEEING THAT IT REALLY IS NO LARGER THAN THIS, AND SEEING IT AS A PAINTING — THAT MEANS WE DO NOT HAVE THIS SOMEWHAT GREEN TONE THAT THE GLAZING GIVES IT INSIDE THE CASE. IT IS POSSIBLE TO EVEN SEE SOME OF THE CHANGES ON THE HANDS, THE OUTLINES ON THE HANDS.>>LEONARDO’S CHANGES? I THOUGHT I WOULD DO THIS BUT I WILL DO THIS –>>SLIGHT ALTERATIONS. THE OTHER THING IS ONE CAN LOOK AT THE MIDDLE GROUND OF THE PAINTING AND REALLY SEE PREPARATIONS WITHOUT PIGMENT IN CERTAIN AREAS. AND THAT MIDDLE GROUND OF THE PICTURE IS VERY UNRESOLVED. IT IS CLEAR THAT THE PAINTING WAS NOT SOMETHING HE CONSIDERED FULLY RESOLVED. THE TRANSITION, THE FOREGROUND, BALCONY, THEN GOING INTO THE DEPTHS OF THE LANDSCAPE. AND REMEMBER, THE PAINTING BEGAN IN OCTOBER 1503. HE HAD IT AT THE TIME OF HIS DEATH.>>KEPT IT WITH HIM.>>YES. ALL PORTRAITS IN THE RENAISSANCE WERE COMMISSIONED BY A PATRON, AND THEN ON FINISHING, THEY WERE DELIVERED. THIS WAS NEVER DELIVERED. IN FACT, MANY OF THE PAINTINGS, LEONARDO DID NOT SEEM TO HAVE DELIVERED TO HIS FINAL CLIENTS. IT IS IMPORTANT TO BE ABLE TO SEE THE MONA LISA AS A WORK IN PROGRESS. THAT WAS WHAT FASCINATED ME MOST.>>THE MAGNIFICENT EXHIBIT NOW THAT YOU CURATED OF SAINT JEROME PRAYING IN THE WILDERNESS, THIS VERY POWERFUL EXHIBITION WHICH CENTERS AROUND ONE PAINTING, PERHAPS LEONARDO’S MOST FAMOUS UNFINISHED. TELL US SOMETHING — TELL US ABOUT THE FINGERPRINTS YOU DISCOVER, LEONARDO’S FINGERPRINTS ARE ON THAT PAINTING.>>THE PAINTING IS PROBABLY THE MOST INTENSE PAINTING THAT LEONARDO PRODUCED, AT LEAST FOR A PRIVATE DEVOTION. THE PAINTING, BECAUSE IT IS UNFINISHED, ALLOWS US TO SEE LEONARDO AT WORK, AND IN THE EVOLUTION OF HIS IDEAS. THE PAINTING ALSO SHOWS US THAT LEONARDO PROCEEDED IN AN UNDISCIPLINED WAY. HE FOCUSED ON THE PARTS THAT WERE OF INTEREST TO HIM. HE BEGAN IN 1483 AND PROBABLY PICKED IT UP AGAIN IN 1510, DECADES AFTER HE HAD BEGUN. AND THAT THE TIME HE HAD DONE SOME OF THE REALLY DETAILED ANATOMICAL STUDIES OF THE MUSCULATURE AROUND 1510, SO THAT PART OF THE HEAD AND NECK IN THE UPPER PART, THE SHOULDERS AND BACK, THAT IS THE PART THAT HE COMPLETELY REDID. THEN YOU LOOK AT OTHER PARTS OF THE PAINTING, AND THE LOWER LEG, THE RIGHT LEG, IS VERY FINISHED AND LOOKS VERY SCULPTURAL. THEN THE TORSO LOOKS ALMOST IN SHADOW COMPLETELY, UNRESOLVED. THEN YOU LOOK AT THE UPPER LEFT AND YOU SEE THE LANDSCAPE THAT HE STARTED, AND HE USED HIS FINGERS AND THE PALMS OF HIS HANDS TO BLEND PIGMENT AND CREATE A SOFT FOCUS. BUT WE SHOULD ALSO SAY THAT THE FINGERPRINTS, THE USE OF THE PALM IN OTHER PAINTINGS AS WELL, AND THAT ALSO HAPPENS WITH OTHER ITALIAN RENAISSANCE PAINTINGS. IT IS NOT AS UNUSUAL AS WE MIGHT THINK. IT IS MORE OF A PRACTICAL WAY OF — ARTISTIC CREATION DOES ENGAGES THE ENTIRE BODY. BUT WHAT IS REALLY INTERESTING ABOUT HAVING THE FINGERPRINTS ON THAT PAINTING IS THAT THERE IS YET ANOTHER WAY IN WHICH, IN WHICH LEONARDO FEELS PHYSICALLY CLOSE TO US, THE VIEWER. AFTER ALL, THAT PAINTING IS SO MUCH ABOUT CREATING A CONNECTION BETWEEN THE VIEWER AND THE SUBJECT BEING PAINTED, AND LEONARDO WRITES A GREAT DEAL ABOUT THE ENGAGEMENT OF THE VIEWER WITH THE SUBJECT OF THE PAINTING. IN FACT HE SAYS, THAT THE PUBLIC SHOULD FEEL MOVED AS THE SUBJECT THAT IS PORTRAYED IN THE PAINTING.>>THIS IS THE 500TH ANNIVERSARY OF LEONARDO’S DEATH, AND IN PARIS NEXT MONTH THERE WILL BE ALL KINDS OF CELEBRATIONS AT THE LOUVRE AND ALL AROUND PARIS. YOU WILL BE THERE, AND YOU WILL JUST BE AN OBSERVER, RIGHT? NO. [LAUGHTER] WHAT IS YOUR ROLE?>>I WILL BE THE KEYNOTE LECTURE.>>OF COURSE.>>IS A SYMPOSIUM DEDICATED TO LEONARDO ON SCIENCE AND SO THERE WILL BE A VERY SPECIAL THING — MY COLLEAGUES AT THE LOUVRE HAVE BEEN GREAT SUPPORTERS, SO IT IS VERY SWEET AND I FEEL VERY HONORED THAT I WAS INVITED TO DO THAT. I WILL ALSO BE GIVING THE LECTURE CLOSING THE LEONARDO YEAR IN PARIS AT THE LOUVRE JANUARY 11, 2020.>>SO, IF YOU WANT MORE OF CARMEN, AND YOU SHOULD, GET TO PARIS BECAUSE WE HAVE TO LEAVE IT HERE. I HOPE YOU GET HER VOLUMES, I HOPE YOU SEE HER WONDERFUL SHOW AT THE METROPOLITAN WHICH CLOSES ON OCTOBER 6TH. AND I MUST TELL YOU, IT’S BEEN EXTRAORDINARY EXPERIENCE FOR ME. THANK YOU SO MUCH.>>THANK YOU TONY. IT’S REALLY MY PLEASURE AND HONOR TO BE HERE.>>WELL THANK YOU. WE WILL SEE YOU SOON. THANK YOU.

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