Easiest Way to Remember Movement Terms | Corporis

Easiest Way to Remember Movement Terms | Corporis

Welcome to anatomical yoga. We’ll start
at the top of our mats in anatomic position — gently elevate and retract
your scapula with ever-so-slight cervical circumduction. Now flex your
dominant hip and knee while an externally rotated contralateral hip and
flex knee allow you to rest your foot on your thigh. Next we’ll move on to my
favorite the downward Vesalius If none of that made sense then keep watching
this video because today we’re talking about movement terms What’s up y’all my name is Pat Kelly
I got another anatomy lesson for you Today we’re talking movement terms. These
are all the motions as they apply to the body so we’re going to go over what
those movements are what joints they apply to and give you a few memory
devices so hopefully you can remember them easier. I made this video to
accompany my anatomical regions and directional terms videos so if you
haven’t seen those and recommend clicking that link right there to get a
little bit of background. So here’s the big picture: we have multiple joints that
all move in incredibly unique ways so simple terms like up-down in sideways
don’t apply here. We need unique terms to describe unique
motions and when we’re talking about anatomical motion we reference an
imaginary body in something called the anatomic position. That’s standing
upright with feet forward arms by your side with palms forward and head neutral
looking forward. I’ve said it before and I’ll say it again always refer to the
anatomic position whenever you’re talking about direction or motion. This
is forever and always your starting point in anatomy. Why? Well it’s tempting
to say something like “move the patient’s leg up” to refer to hip flexion when
someone is in the anatomic position but that’s a completely different motion
than if they’re lying on their side. So in order to standardize language we
always refer to the anatomic position The second thing to keep in mind is that
there are different planes of motion and different axes of motion with which
these limbs and joints move around. Obviously your body exists and moves in
three dimensions so while some motions seem like they happen in a very
straightforward, linear way, most day-to-day motions are a combination of
those. Let’s start with abduction which is movement of a joint away from the
midline of the body and adduction, movement towards the midline of the body. Specifically this midline on the sagittal plane. Now clearly these words
sound very similar and some folks will painstakingly spell it out A-B-duction
to make it super clear but the difference is actually way easier to
remember. I picture an alien abduction taking my arm away from me whereas with
adduction I’m adding to the size of my body. You’ll see these motions all the
time with shoulders and hips but you can also apply them to fingers and wrists. In
those cases abduction doesn’t necessarily mean going away from
the body’s midline but from the midline of the hand. So really finger abduction
is the same thing as spreading your fingers while adduction is closing them. One little note though, some clinicians will call this motion wrist abduction or
adduction but some will say radial deviation meaning the hand is moving
towards the radius or ulnar deviation toward the ulna. They’re the exact same
thing but since the hand and wrist are so often not in anatomic position
they’re easier to remember this way. Next up is bending and straightening more
technically flexion which is a decrease in the angle between two joints and
extension and increase in that angle It’s pretty intuitive for joints like
the knee, elbow or even spine but some joints are a little trickier. Like this
is shoulder flexion, and to me it just looks like my arm is going away from my
body so I had to come up with a separate way to remember flexion versus extension.
I remember that flexion is like the fetal position which clearly both start
with F — check it out: the hips and knees are in flexion the shoulders elbows and
wrists are in flexion and the neck and all parts of the spine are in flexion. That’s right flexion and fetal the two best F words for any memory device. Extension is the opposite, you’re increasing the angle between two joints
which usually results in straightening the limb or extending it past that
frontal plane midline. But be careful because flexion and flexing are two very
different things. When we say flex a muscle what we’re actually saying is to
put tension on it, to contract it and yeah when you’re flexing your bicep
you’re also doing elbow flexion but you can flex your quadriceps while you’re
extending your knee Got it? Rad. Moving on. Next up is medial and lateral rotation
sometimes called internal and external rotation and just like picturing
rotation from physics we first need to figure out what our axis is. So for both
the shoulder and the hip joints our axis is going to be an imaginary line running
through the long bone of those joints You can do this with me. If you stand up
and lock out your elbow and rotate your shoulder so that your thumb starts
pointing towards your midline you medially or internally rotated the
shoulder now on the flip side the thumb is heading back out so we’re doing
lateral or external rotation. Same thing with the hip joint. If you
stand up and lock out your knee when the foot goes towards the midline
that’s medial rotation if it goes out lateral rotation. But remember, movement
terms use the anatomic position as a reference so if we’re in standing we can
get away with using our hands and feed as little guides but that might
completely disappear if we have our person change position. Like imagine for
whatever reason you wanted to assess a patient’s internal shoulder rotation in
a seated position. It’s gonna be really difficult to work with a straight arm so
you have your patient bend their elbow Now in this case internal and external
rotation still make intuitive sense. My arm is going towards the midline or away
from the midline which agrees with the long axis rotation we defined earlier.
That’s awesome unfortunately that doesn’t translate to the hip joints. Right here I’m actually doing medial hip rotation: the long axis of the femur is
rotating towards the midline. But my lower leg is all out to the side vice
versa when I do lateral rotation or when you test this in the supine position. Okay lesson learned, if you look at the long axis of the bone and anatomic
position you’ll never trip up. So those are our major multi-joint movements but
there are some exceptions and from here on out it gets pretty specific Like the
radius has the ability to flip around the ulna due to a cool little pivot
joint between the radius and ulna that’s totally separate from shoulder rotation. This is called supination and pronation. Supination everyone remembers because
you flip your hand up like you’re asking for soup… it gets dumber. On the other
hand I remember pronation because it’s like a bunch of pro national football
players all putting their hands in on the pile. Also can I get credit for
putting literally the other hand in? But it gets even weirder and more specific
like the ankle joint — specifically between the talus and the lower leg — do
something called dorsiflexion and plantarflexion I remember these because when you point your toes down you’re planting your toes
on the ground then when you point them back towards you, you’re pointing them
towards your dorsal aspect, your back where we’d keep our dorsal fin. But the ankle
can still wiggle a little more that same talocrural joint rotates around the
long axis of the METATARSALS to do inversion and eversion. Easy way to
remember those, if you invert your feet your body will trip over and your body
will end up inverted – but you could forever comfortably
stand an eversion. We’re getting to the end but lastly we need to look at the
scapula. They can elevate or depress protract or retract, all of which are
pretty intuitive to remember. Finally we have circumduction which is this big
silly looking circular motion that happens at a few joints including the
neck shoulders and hips. Now those are all the major motions but there are a
couple things to keep in mind. As a clinician you’re probably gonna care
about these movement terms because they’re gonna help you document things
like range of motion and functional movements Usually we care about three
types of movements: active motion which means the patient is moving the joint
through their own effort passive motion which means the motion is being done to
them either by your hands or by a machine and resisted motion which is
self-explanatory some kind of resistance is being placed on that motion. And those
are important distinctions to make because that might help you with your
assessment For instance if somebody had painful shoulder flexion but they were
fine on passive shoulder flexion you can use that information Now all Anatomy
students are gonna need to know these movement terms but if you’re more
interested in movement itself I’m gonna recommend this playlist up here it’s my
musculoskeletal biomechanics and kinesiology playlist specifically I’m
gonna recommend this video about origins and insertions I think it’ll be really
helpful to you and a big thank you to David who’s my newest patron on patreon
if you want to join them you can click that link there or you can support the
channel for free by subscribing at that link there have fun be good I’ll see you
next time

6 Replies to “Easiest Way to Remember Movement Terms | Corporis”

  1. I can't believe you posted this video one day before my midterm exam in high school. thank you very much and I hope you continue to grow in this channel.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *