Eukaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis), Animation.

Eukaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis), Animation.

Steps of the translation process:
Initiation : The small ribosomal subunit binds to the initiator tRNA carrying the initiator
amino acid methionine. This complex then attaches to the cap structure at the 5’ end of an
mRNA and scans for the start codon AUG. The process is mediated by several initiation
factors. At the start codon, the large ribosomal subunit joins the complex and all initiation
factors are released. The ribosome has three sites: the A-site is the entry site for new
tRNA charged with amino-acid or aminoacyl-tRNA; the P-site is occupied by peptidyl-tRNA – the
tRNA that carries the growing polypeptide chain; the E-site is the exit site for the
tRNA after it’s done delivering the amino acid. The initiator tRNA is positioned in
the P-site. Elongation: A new tRNA carrying an amino acid
enters the A-site of the ribosome. On the ribosome, the anticodon of the incoming tRNA
is matched against the mRNA codon positioned in the A-site. During this proof-reading,
tRNA with incorrect anticodons are rejected and replaced by new tRNA that are again checked.
When the right aminoacyl-tRNA enters the A-site, a peptide bond is made between the two now-adjacent
amino-acids. As the peptide bond is formed, the tRNA in the P-site releases the amino-acids
onto the tRNA in the A-site and becomes empty. At the same time, the ribosome moves one triplet
forward on the mRNA. As a result, the empty tRNA is now in the E-site and the peptidyl
tRNA is in the P-site. The A-site is now unoccupied and is ready to accept a new tRNA. The cycle
is repeated for each codon on the mRNA. Termination: Termination happens when one
of the three stop codons is positioned in the A-site. No tRNA can fit in the A-site
at that point as there are no tRNA that match the sequence. Instead, these codons are recognized
by a protein, a release factor. Binding of the release factor catalyzes the cleavage
of the bond between the polypeptide and the tRNA. The polypeptide is released from the
ribosome. The ribosome is disassociated into subunits and is ready for a new round of translation.

79 Replies to “Eukaryotic Translation (Protein Synthesis), Animation.”

  1. Great Job. Thanks For Explaining In Easy Way to Understand.
    Because I Have A Presentation on This Topic. So I'll Be Burrowing This Video For My Presentation. 😉 Thanks Again. 😀

  2. how does the ef-tu and ef-g help with this process since it was not mention. Can anyone explain it to me please.

  3. You failed to mention how Elongation Factor 2 is essential for translocating the tRNA during the elongation phase.

  4. Thank you for this video! This is exactly what I was looking for when reviewing for my Biochemistry final. Most other videos I have watched did not mention anything about the initiation factors, and that was one of the key things I needed to review. Thank you again.

  5. It was a really good video. Compared to all the other videos,this one had more detailed explanation to it especially the A,P,E sites it was really clear .Thanks for the video.

  6. i learned that eukaryotes do not code for a methionine amino acid when the start codon is read. Only prokaryotes code for methionine when the ribosome reads the start codon.

  7. I have a small doubt, can u please explain, its mentioned in my book that eukaryotic ribosome don't have exit site!!! And you did mention something about the e-site! So, which one should i follow

  8. It is same as of prokaryotes but initiation factors consist of eIF1, eIF2, eIF3 and the ribosome subunits consist of 60s nd 40s

  9. Help us make more videos like this! Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards:
    Thank you so much!

  10. The mistake is the video shows the initiation procedure exactly likes the translation initiation in prokaryotic cells but it should be completely different. EX: you need to show eIF1, eIF1A, eIF2,eIf2b, 5'Gcap in mRNA that binds to the eIF4 and ……….

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *