General Skeleton Basic Tutorial – Anatomy Tutorial

General Skeleton Basic Tutorial – Anatomy Tutorial

This is a tutorial on the general skeleton.
I won’t be going into a lot of detail about each individual bone and all their features.
If you want to learn a bit more about that, then have a look at some of my other tutorials. So the skeleton has both fused and individual
bones. It acts basically as a framework for muscles to attach to and it also protects
and supports organs such as the heart, lungs and brain. Bones are connected at joints by
ligaments (which on this model here are these little white things) and muscles would attach
to bones by tendons. You’ve also got cartilage, which could be found between various joints. The skeleton can be thought of as — well,
it’s broken into an axial and appendicular skeleton. So the axial skeleton consists of
the bones along the central axis of the human body. There are six bones which make up — well,
not six bones, but six things that you need to remember that make up the axial skeleton.
You’ve got the skull, the ossicles (which are little bones in the middle ear), the hyoid
bone, the rib cage, the sternum and the vertebral column. I’ll just quickly show you those. These bones make up the axial skeleton, which
is the central axis of the human skeleton. The first bone is the skull (which you probably
don’t need to be told), the ossicles actually aren’t on this model, but they’re little,
tiny bones in the middle ear, this bone in the throat is the hyoid bone [00:01:55], then
the sternum here and the rib cage (which is this set of ribs) and then the vertebral column.
That’s the axial skeleton. As you can see, it’s central. The appendicular skeleton as you can probably
guess comes from the word ‘appendage’, so that basically means something that’s attached
onto something else. So it’s essentially all the rest of the bones that aren’t on the axial
skeleton — so all your limbs. The appendicular skeleton is involved with movement. So you’ve got the appendicular skeleton and
the axial skeleton. When you come across those words, you’ll hopefully what they mean. So just to begin with, we’ll start going through
the bones of the body. I’ll start at the top and work my way down. We’ve got the skull
here. The skull consists of the cranium, which is this. That, in itself consists of many
different bones, but we’ll look at those in another tutorial. And then you’ve got the
mandible. So the skull consists of the cranium and the mandible. Next, you’ve got the vertebral column, which
extends right from the base of the skull here all the way down to meet the pelvis. So on
the vertebral column, we’ve got 24 articulating vertebra, which are these little bones, individual
bones. And then at the end of all of them, you’ve got the sacrum and you’ve got the coccyx.
The sacrum and the coccyx consist of fused bones. So within the vertebra, the first seven vertebra
are the cervical vertebra. And then you’ve got the next 12, which are in the chest region
and these vertebrae articulates with the ribs. These are known as the thoracic vertebra.
And then you’ve got the lumbar vertebra, five lumbar vertebrae in the lower back region.
So you’ve got seven cervical, 12 thoracic and five lumbar vertebra. I’ve already shown you the hyoid bone here.
I’ve spoken about the ossicles. The next part of the axial skeleton is the sternum, this
central bone here otherwise known as the breastbone. There’s three parts to the sternum. It doesn’t
have them labeled, but the first part here is the manubrium and then you’ve got the body
of the sternum here and then this is the xiphoid process or the xiphisternum. So that’s the
breastbone. This little joint here between the manubrium
and the body of the sternum is known as the angle of Louis or the sternal angle. It’s
quite important to know this. This is an important anatomical landmark because this is where
the second rib joins. So when you’re doing physical examination on patients or something,
you can use this landmark because you know it’s the second rib. So if you were looking
for the apex beat for instance, which you know is in the 5th intercostal space, mid-clavicular
line, you can feel for this little angle here, the angle of Louis and then it’s three intercostal
spaces down and then in the mid-clavicular line. Let’s bring in the heart. So you know this
is the second intercostal space because it’s after the angle of Louis and then you just
count down to the fifth intercostal space and you can find what you’re looking for. So that’s that. That’s the sternum. And then you’ve got the ribs here, which is
part of the axial skeleton. You have got 12 pairs of ribs, so 24 ribs. And then these
12 ribs get broken down into true and false ribs. So you’ve got seven true ribs and five
false ribs. So these things are the costal cartilages.
They link the ribs to the sternum. The true ribs, the first seven ribs are the ribs which
have their own costal cartilage. So one, two, three, four, five, six, seven. They’ve got
their own costal cartilages. And then you’ve got five false ribs. So these next three ribs
have a common costal cartilage. They don’t have their own one, so they’re false ribs.
And then you’ve got these two little ribs below that, the 11th and 12th ribs, which
are known as floating ribs because they don’t even have a costal cartilage. They don’t connect
to the sternum. They only attach to the vertebra. So you’ve got 12 pairs of ribs. Of those 12
pairs, you’ve got seven true ribs, five false ribs and of those five ribs, you’ve got two
floating ribs. So that’s the axial skeleton that I’ve just
covered. Now I’ll just talk about the appendicular skeleton and show you the bones of that. Just starting from the top, we’ve got these
two bones here, which are the clavicles. We may know them as the collar bones. You can
see this on yourself and you can feel them on yourself. If I just show you that, you
can see that little indentation, which is the clavicle or where the clavicle lies. And then you’ve got your upper limbs. So you’ve
got your upper arm, your forearm and then your hand. So the bones of the upper arm are
known as the humerus. This bone here is the humerus. And then the lower arm, you’ve got
the radius and ulna. The ulna is the bone which is medial in the anatomical position.
The radius is lateral in the anatomical position. So these are the two bones of the lower arm. And then in the hand, you’ve got quite a lot
of bones. You’ve got the carpals. You’ve got eight carpal bones, which I’ll do a tutorial
on, a separate tutorial on. You’ve got the metacarpals and you’ve got the phalanges,
which are the fingers, the digits. So if I just show you that, you can see that you’ve
got three phalanges here and the metacarpal and carpal bones. So that’s the bones of the
upper limb. And if I just rotate this around, you can
see this bone here, which is the scapula. This articulates with the humerus. You’ll
be able to feel this on yourself again. It’s often referred to as the shoulder blade. So
that’s the scapula. So working our way down, now we’ve got the
pelvis here. The pelvis consists of the pelvic girdle, which is these big two hip bones and
then you’ve got the pelvic region of the spine, the sacrum and the coccyx. So that’s the pelvis. These pelvic bones are known as the coxa.
They consist of three fused bones. You’ve got the ilium, the ischium
and the pubis. So each hip bone or coxa consists
of three fused bones — ilium, ischium and pubis. So that’s the pelvis. And then coming down to the lower limb, you’ve
got the leg. You’ve got the thigh, the lower leg and the foot. This big bone here is known
as the femur and it’s the largest bone in the body. And in the lower leg, you’ve got
the tibia and the fibula. The fibula is lateral. You can feel this little bit here, the head
of the fibula on yourself. It’s that little bump on the outside of your leg just next
to your knee. So if we have a look there, you can see where it lies just here. So you’ve
got the tibia and fibula. And in the foot, like in the hand, you’ve
got carpal bones, in the foot, you’ve got tarsals. So in the foot, you’ve got seven
tarsal bones. Again, I’ll cover these in more detail in another tutorial. And then you’ve
got the metacarpals and the phalanges, which are your toes. So you could see that. And then you’ve got the patella, which is
your kneecap here. So I think that covers the general skeleton.
I hope you’ve got a good understanding of it now. If you want more detailed tutorials
on the individual bones and the different features, then I’ll be doing a few soon. So
check back and have a look out for those.

83 Replies to “General Skeleton Basic Tutorial – Anatomy Tutorial”

  1. I'm sure it's useful but I think it should be age-restricted or at least some sort of warning showed at the beginning, I hardly managed to keep myself from getting sick when I saw the deadbody opened up!!!

  2. u need to edit the foot comment , they are not metacarpals but metatarsals.
    keep up the good work !

  3. Thanks for the effort to put such good video together. Very instructional and easy to understand. Just some constructive feedback,,,the pronunciation for Cervical is /ser-vi-kel/.Keep up the good work!! 🙂

  4. Chinese ba ang nagsasalita dito di ko maintindihan accent kung wala lang akong background at saka yong tinuturo ng cursor ciguro nakatungnga lang ako,lol,anyway thanx!

  5. Omg I just finished watching a video on how to speak with an australian accent then remembered I had to study for my exc. science test tomorrow and then there's this guy… 😛

  6. Thank you so much for this! I have an anatomy test tomorrow and this gave me great notes and i think i am ready for the test now! 🙂

  7. it was very helpful.. thank you… but please tell me, where do you got this program from, where you can see everything, which includes the bones,muscles and organs and nerves… please help me and tell me how and from where you got this program.

  8. guys: just buy the app (iOS, Android). Or if you're jailbroen or rooted, you can get it for free. The app is Essential Anatomy 2 ($25) or Anatomy Atlas.($35). Or free ones: Essential Skeleton 2 and Skeleton HD.

  9. Best lecture I came across so far!! Thank you so much for posting ! It helps me practice for my 3D animation course ^___^

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  11. Do not let what you think you know about anatomy and physiology get in the way of the concepts your instructor is teaching. Living in a connected modern world, you already have information in your brain about human anatomy and physiology. Some of it may be very accurate information. Some of it may have given you false impressions.

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  17. Whenever I watch an anatomy video, or a video showing off the human body with its functions and properties I always see at least a dozen dislikes on it.

    Are people idiots? This video is educational. Why are you disliking it? Some idiot says down that "It's scary." So you're scared that skeletons inhabit the insides of your biology? Are you the type of person that easily shits himself at the sight of his own shadow then?

    I'm also probably guessing that you dislike videos with shadows in them. I'm convinced the concept of shadows is very troubling to you. Heck, you might also subscribe to the ideea that cameras steal your soul the moment a photo of you gets taken.

    I'd be more inclined to think they stole the amalgam of your brain since you have no visible intelligence.

    Is that the reason you're disliking it? Perhaps you're one of those morons who think showing of human biology somehow harms the fabric of existence? Is the explanation not worthy of your time?

    Maybe you're an anatomical or medical expert and you think some of the points presented in the video are not sufficient enough?

    Seriously, what is bugging people so much that they feel the need, like a compulsory action to dislike these types of videos?

    I can only derive that the people who dislike these videos are morons and deserve their brain bleached.

  18. Thank you now I have better knowledge of the human anatomy which comes with better understanding of The martial arts I practice and more along the lines, thank you for your time sir.

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  23. Thank you very much for this video. I will be watching the others, too. My advanced martial arts teacher is requiring me to study these. Your video is great. I am a special education teacher by trade and consider clarity of the basics the most important foundation of what comes next. Bring them in nice and easy before clobbering with the heavy details which, I am sure, you will make as easy to assimilate. Thank you so much. 🙂

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