How Have We Almost Eradicated Polio?

How Have We Almost Eradicated Polio?


Only one human disease in history has been
fully stamped out; smallpox, with the World Health Organization declaring it eradicated
way back in 1980. But, we might be close to eradicating a second
disease; polio. Yes, the disease that brings up imagery of
wheelchairs and iron lungs may soon be on its way out, but as of 2019, we’re not there
yet. Polio, also known as poliomyelitis, is an
infectious disease caused by the aptly-named poliovirus, which comes in three strains,
and is spread mostly by consuming contaminated water. And by contaminated we mean, well… So, the kid poops it out, the virus gets in
the water around there, usually in the sewage. And then, sometime in the next day or two
or three or a week or something, some other kid will drink the sewage and it’ll get in
that kid and they’ll cycle around like that. Okay. Hi, I’m Jay Wenger, I’m the Director of Polio
at the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. I started working on polio eradication in
2002, when I went to India, and I joined the Gates Foundation in 2011, and have been there
ever since. Polio can be passed through the air with oral
fluids, like from a cough or a sneeze, but the cycle today usually begins with fecal
oral transmission, mostly in areas with poor sanitation. Once swallowed the virus heads straight to
your intestines, finding places to replicate along the way. Now, most of the time your body will take
care of the invader with an immune response, giving you flu-like symptoms or no symptoms
at all. There are two things that happen
with a natural infection. Well, there are lots of things that happen,
but the two main ones are, you develop humoral antibodies. And those are antibodies that float around
your bloodstream. And basically will, if the virus gets into
your bloodstream, they’ll attack it and you’ll end up ejecting it. The second way is producing mucosal antibodies
that are secreted in the gut to ensure it doesn’t reproduce. But if those antibodies in the blood don’t
stop the infection, it could result in paralysis, which occurs in about one out of every 200
people who contract the poliovirus. That’s because if the virus survives into
your bloodstream, they can find a way into your nervous system and eventually get into
the anterior horn cells of your spinal cord. Basically, they reproduce
then they go into the cell and they reproduce there, and they result in death of the
actual anterior horn cell, and is that cell that the message from the brain
transmits to the muscle. And it causes an irreversible cell death. So, if these anterior horn cells die, it disrupts
the transmission between the brain and the muscles, such as the muscles in the torso, limbs, and
between our ribs. And which part of the body becomes paralyzed
will depend on which cells die. But, for instance, if it attacks the nerves
that ultimately go to the leg, say, the right leg, it can kill those nerves, and then, messages
from the brain to the leg don’t get there anymore. And so, the leg will be paralyzed, you won’t
be able to move it. That usually happens pretty quickly, usually
within a day. But, if the virus gets to the nerves that
influence your breathing muscles, that’s especially bad, because you then can’t breathe and your
lungs don’t work. Weakened lungs could result in death, or in
some cases, bringing in a machine to help the patient breathe, like the iron lung All of these effects of polio; weakened lungs,
paralysis and death, are why so many people are still focused on eradicating the disease. Polio was a huge deal in the United States. It was actually the most feared infectious disease of like the 40s and 50s in the United
States. So, there was a huge push to develop a polio
vaccine. And the first polio vaccine that got developed
was developed by Salk, and that was based on a killed poliovirus preparation. And so, that one was great, it was a breakthrough
of its time. And if you inject killed poliovirus, what
you get are the humoral antibodies. This boost of humoral antibodies in the blood
helps lower the chance that the virus will get to your spine, reducing the risk of polio-induced
paralysis. And so, the vaccine is good in that it prevents
paralysis, and it has a little bit of an impact on the amount that you excrete. It reduces it a little bit, but not a lot. So that, especially in tropical countries
with rotten sanitation, the IPV is not actually a good tool to get rid of the virus from a
population. That’s because the IPV isn’t as effective
at boosting the mucosal antibodies, so the virus still reproduces in the gut, ensuring
large numbers are still passed on through poop into water supplies. But a couple years later, Sabin came out with
an oral vaccine. This Sabin vaccine was developed using live,
weakened strains of poliovirus and helped not only trigger humoral antibodies to protect
from paralysis, but also mucosal antibodies, which greatly reduces the amount of poliovirus
passed on through poop. So, it was a huge difference and people found
that soon that after using that in populations, giving every kid in the population the OPV,
a couple times, you would actually drive the wild virus away. This happened in Latin America and wild poliovirus was eventually eliminated from the entire Americas, and then in Europe and Eastern Asia which essentially became wild poliovirus free. But things sort of got slowed down a little bit in
the 2000s, when we got down to like four countries. And that was India, Pakistan, Afghanistan
and Nigeria. And we think that we are making progress toward
finishing off polio in these last places. India had their last case in 2011, we’re hoping
Nigeria had their last case in 2016. And we’re down to only two countries right
now, Afghanistan and Pakistan. If we get rid of the wild poliovirus there,
it won’t be anywhere else, there’s nowhere else to be. And so that will basically stop that as a
cause of paralysis for kids everywhere.

100 Replies to “How Have We Almost Eradicated Polio?”

  1. In my language (Slovenian) we actually call it children's paralysis. So, just the sound of it really makes you want to avoid it 😀

  2. My neighbors are anti-vaxxers, and all summer I heard their kids playing in their pool.
    “Marco”
    “Polio” 😂🤣😂😍🤣👏

  3. I had both Salk vaccines as a child in the fifties. He certainly should be remembered for all the people that were unknowingly saved by his vaccines Hopefully there won't be some radical mutation that vaccines won't. help in the future. I remember those iron lungs. Had to be a terrible way to keep a kid alive for all involved.

  4. Does polio only reproduce in humans? If we eliminate it from those last 4 countries and wait a generation, will it be extinct and we can go without taking the vaccine?

  5. Fun fact after the Obama twice used vaccine doctors to kill Bin Ladin and spread Ebola in Africa most 3rd world countries kill any vaccine doctors to prevent more US caused deaths. Thanks Obama

  6. Can you please stop making depressing sick videos. There are many of us who are chronically ill and these videos are an awful reminder of how disgustingly torturous life can be.

  7. Looking at case and evidence of anti Vaxxers. I think. . Doctors might hsve had expiremental ingredients .like lead& Murcery. . After in knowing test subjects had brain damage. They stopped. But not before. People started to suspect the vaccines. And sounds Illegal . maybe that's why no one owned up to it. The basis for Anti Vaxxers could be from unknowing unwhile medical test subjects.it happened before

  8. No mention of the cutter incident of the 1950s, which gave thousands of people paralytic polio. Notice this guy calls it “wild polio” because there are lots of kids still getting sick with polio from the vaccine….

  9. Hi seeker
    Interesting video about polio..
    Learned why polio injected orally.
    Thanks to you…
    Can't miss your videos..
    Thanks for the video…🙏👍😊

  10. It could have been good to add some additional info at the end about the causes and issues preventing/delaying the eradication in those last few countries. Good video non-the-less.

  11. There is rumor in Pakistan that polio virus increases homo sexuality so thats why generally people avoid these vaccination programs

  12. My grandfather contracted polio when he was a child. This led to the growth of his right leg being severely stunted and cause numbness throughout the leg however he was not paralyzed in the leg. He referred to it as a bloody inconvenience.
    As an adult he had add a significant asymmetry with his legs in respect of his right leg being about 3 inches shorter than his left so he had to wear a shoe with a riser in it. This also caused some problems with his back.
    He thought the polio vaccine was a marvellous discovery and wished it was around when he was a kid.

  13. I had polio in 1953 at 3 years of age. From 1953-1968 I was hospitalized a cumulative total of over 6 years including some months in an iron lung. My summers as a child were mostly no school holiday as I was usually to be found at Minnesota's Gillette State Hospital for Crippled Children, not with my family and friends. The disability had profound effects on my life, some bad but surprisingly mostly for the good as it pushed me into a life that seemed to require me to experience things that shaped my adult life, but I would not wish this on any child, or adult. The anti-vax people just do not understand that their choice puts their, and other's, children at risk of dying or never being able to walk or throw a ball. Couple that with our the U.S. CIA's fake polio vaccine campaign while looking for Osama Bin Laden which has destroyed the trust of real vaccinators in some mostly Muslim countries and you can see how polio cases can rise again. Just Google "polio osama bin laden" to see the damage this has done.

  14. My uncle (by marriage to my aunt) had it as a child and his family who were poor and expected him to die from it planned to bury him in the back yard as they couldn't afford a grave burial and didn't just want his body taken away.
    But he survived and has extremely emaciated calf muscles so he walks by raising his upper leg then just letting the foot flop to the ground, he manages it quite well and though it looks funny he hasn't let it stop him achieving things

  15. Uneducation and STUPIDITY can spread faster the EDUCATION. That's why all this anti VAX idiots are bringing back all this PESTILENCE.

  16. Does anyone observe that they have changed the whole topic of this video? And the logo for the video ,the one with the wheelchair? Or is it just me .

  17. We destroyed polio in Western countries. With the attack on general labour (importing 3rd world immigrants) it has been reintroduced. So, thanks.

  18. The polio vaccine administered in India is a community immunisation vaccine. It means you administer it one person but it spreads to all people he/she is in contact with. Works as a insurance against anti-vax assholes.
    EDIT- India is now cured of Polio since 2011.
    EDIT 2- Only Pakistan , afganistan and Nigeria have polio .

  19. Wow, what nonsense. Anyone who is willing to look at the history of these diseases will discover that the stories that have been perpetuated regarding their cure doesn't concur with the facts. Public health data can be pretty tiresome to comb through, resulting in it being done infrequently. This guy is following the well rehearsed mantra that was carefully crafted to give the impression that vaccines have saved us from all these horrible diseases, but the data says otherwise.

  20. This Mans : Spend almost 2 decades of his life trying to eradicate Polio, and almost finish it
    Anti-vax : "I'm About to End This Man's Whole Career"

  21. Its an open fact that its the military that runs pakistan with the mask of prime minister .And the main aim of pak military is to destablize India ..by any means necessary including terrorism ..so most of their funds are transferred to military and trainning of terrorists and not for the healthcare and welfare of pakistani citizen …Regarding vaccination ..the hate against other religions is so much in pakistan that there is general propoganda that hindus,jews and christians conspire to vaccinate muslim kids of pakistan and it would make them sterile or weak …often vaccination workers in pakistan have been murdered …such is the polio case in Pakistan

  22. I still remember getting my OPV when I was studying in UKG, there was a women who would come to our house in regular intervals to give me those drops.

  23. It's wild how anti-vaxxers' logic is that theyd rather their kid flat out die from shit like this than maybe develop autism

  24. I would plead to pull the plug I’m not even lying🤦🏻‍♂️ just the thought of being in an iron lung gives me such a heightened level of anxiety that I feel like vomiting.. Watching the nurse feed the patient while literally laying on their back whilst connected to that machine😓

  25. Great video, thank you for your time. What you have to say is incredibly important and interesting but the music over the voices is very distracting and not necessary. Again, great video. Thank you.

  26. What if polio could be used to fight off another infectious disease. And than use the cure to cure itself. Boom! Nature! Also World War Z 😂

  27. Pakistan is the worst place spreading diseases like polio, terrorism. One should eradicate origin of these diseases once and for all 😂

  28. Good luck, the reason Pakistan and Afghanistan still have polio is because of the Taliban. According to the Talibans perverted beliefs getting a vaccine will send you to hell so they kill any health work in their controlled territory they see giving out a polio a vaccine. Religion but especially Islam is a cancer that needs to die

  29. Most people hating on anti vaxxers while I'm hating on the real source: The shit drinkers and shit talkers.

    2019: Anti Vaxxers
    2025: Manual Drivers
    2050: Non-Cyborgs
    2110: Freedom-Of-Speechers

  30. IPV is injectable polio vaccine, not inactivated polio vaccine. It’s a standard abbreviation. Although IPV has inactivated polio virus type 1,2 and 3, as the vaccine has to go into the blood of recipient but IPV is strictly injectable polio vaccine and not inactivated polio vaccine.

    Oral polio vaccine ( Sabin) uses weakened polio virus which helps in building mucosal immunity ( local immunity in gut) moreover, when a child who is vaccinated with Sabin passes stool, the weakened virus is passed along and it is then circulated in the community ( by consuming contaminated water, which is inevitable in countries like India and Pakistan as sanitation is not very good here) providing “Herd Immunity” which on its own act as oral vaccine.

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