(OLD VIDEO) Protein Synthesis and the Lean, Mean Ribosome Machines

(OLD VIDEO) Protein Synthesis and the Lean, Mean Ribosome Machines

Captioning is on. To turn off, click the CC button at bottom right. Follow us on Twitter @amoebasisters and Facebook! Lately, we have been talking about DNA, and
how AWESOME DNA is. But what we have not talked about is how DNA actually codes for your traits.
Say, for example, we’re talking about your eye color. Yes, the DNA codes for the genetic
information that codes for the color of your eyes. How exactly does that work? Well, keep
in mind that your eyes are the color that they are based on a pigment that is inside
the eyes. In order to have that pigment, your DNA must code for proteins that help make
that pigment, which gives them their color. So today what we’re going to talk about
is how your DNA leads to a protein. This is actually called protein synthesis. Just like
it sounds -whenever you say synthesis – that means to “make something.” Protein synthesis
means to make protein. Whenever we’re talking about protein synthesis, we also need to realize
this is happening in all of your cells. All of your cells contain your DNA. While not
all of the DNA is turned on at any given time (it’s based on what kind of cell we’re
talking about), that DNA is present in the nucleus of all of your cells. What we have
to consider is, “How are we going to get the genetic information that’s in the DNA (which
is inside the nucleus) out of the nucleus so that the cell can start producing the proteins
that it needs to make based on the genetic instructions?” Well in order to answer that
question, we need to go into the process of protein synthesis. In protein synthesis, there
are two major steps. One is transcription and the other is translation. There are actually
a lot of “trans” words that we’ll get into in biology, but just stay with me here.
Transcription has a C in it, and translation has an L in it. I remember that C comes before
L in the alphabet, which helps me remember that transcription comes first. That’s always
kind of helped me. Now, transcription is when we’re going to transcribe the DNA into a message.
If you think about that, think where DNA is. The DNA is always in the nucleus, so we’re
starting transcription in the nucleus. The DNA is going to have matching RNA bases matched
up to it with the help of enzymes to make mRNA. In transcription, we make mRNA. We made
a message out of RNA. At the end of transcription, we have made an mRNA molecule. Remember that’s
messenger RNA. One great thing about being an mRNA? You can get out of the nucleus. The
mRNA goes out of the nucleus where it’s going to attach to a ribosome. Remember, ribosomes
make protein. Also remember that the r for ribosomal RNA is what makes up a ribosome.
The messenger RNA is going to go to a ribosome, which is made out of rRNA, and use the message
to build our protein. This step is going to be called translation because we’re translating
our message into protein. We are also outside of the nucleus, we are in a ribosome so that
is our location is now. You know, you can find a lot of great clips and animations on
translation that are just fantastic. What I like to think of you’ve got this mRNA
and it’s in a ribosome and then you have these tRNAs coming in. tRNA, remember
that stands for transfer RNA, they have an amino acid on them. An amino acid is the monomer
for a protein; it is a building block for protein. If you get a bunch of amino acids
together, you build this big ole protein. All of these tRNAs are looking for the matching
bases on the mRNA. When they find the matching base pairs on the mRNA, they carry and drop off
their amino acids that it goes to. So eventually what ends up happening is you get this big
chain of amino acids that have to match up with the coding on the mRNA. The different
amino acids are held together by a peptide bond, which is basically a protein bond. You
end up with a really long protein made of all these amino acids, which now can be used
for all kinds of different body processes and that could be something, for example,
if we’re going to make eye pigment. One important thing to mention is that when the
tRNA is bringing in the amino acids, it reads the letters on the mRNA in threes. This means
that every time you have three bases, that is how it reads it. So it doesn’t read one
letter at a time, it reads it in triplets. That’s called a codon. A codon is three
bases. So, for example, if you had an mRNA strand, you wouldn’t just read: A,
then U, then G, then some other letter. It would read AUG together in a triplet, a codon.
Because it reads in threes, when we get into mutations we’ll talk about how if you end
up taking out one letter it could be very bad. If you read in threes and you take out
one letter, it will mess up your reading frame for the rest of that strand. When we get into
mutations, we’ll really get into that. One thing I really like to encourage with topics
like this in biology, it’s really great to have some kind of activity so that you
can really walk through it. It’s really hard to visualize this protein synthesis,
but if you can do an activity where you’re actually involved in it, it can help make
a lot more sense, I promise. So if you do a search for “PBS DNA Workshop,”
you will pull this great resource. The PBS DNA Workshop not only has a little workshop
of DNA replication, but it also has a great protein synthesis activity where it will actually
let you do the protein synthesis – both the transcription and translation. It’s
highly recommended. Anyway, that’s it for the Amoeba Sisters, and we remind you to stay
curious. Follow us on Twitter @amoebasisters and Facebook!

100 Replies to “(OLD VIDEO) Protein Synthesis and the Lean, Mean Ribosome Machines”

  1. Do you have other options for activities like the PBS DNA Workshop? It doesn't work on my computer and I'm wondering if it is old technology?

  2. thank you soo much! you are my savors! i always find this soo hard to understand but you make it so much easier ;-; i love you

  3. Thank You. The best way to get science in the head and actually make sense. Keep up the great work you guys are doing. I am in New Zealand, thanks for internet that we can see your lessons.

  4. I'm a 7th grader but we had a lockdown drill so we had to watch this at home not class lol. Also Amoeba Sisters, if u c this, THANK YOU, you make science so much easier to explain and understand!

  5. Spatial structures of proteins with an accuracy of 100% up to picometer http://nanoworld.org.ru/topic/1837/

  6. really it is amezzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzziiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiinnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnnngggggggggggggggggg channelll..i love it… 🙂

  7. This is sooooooooo helpful!!!!!!!!! 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂 🙂

  8. My bio teacher pulls up your videos all the time during class, I probably have learned more from you than my actual bio teacher

  9. Great JOB!
    but please get better audio. The sounds are too sharp and hurt my ears on some devices.
    Also Pink Ameba sister, you are a bit load, please talk at the same value as Purple Ameba, please.
    thanks for the great vid!!

  10. Thank you so much Amoeba Sisters! I have a really hard exam tomorrow and these videos are really helping me understand biology more! Also I wasn't very interested in biology until I watched these videos! I printed out the worksheets too and I'm gonna do great on the test! Thank you!

  11. In January 2018, we redid this video! We've learned a lot in the past 4 years from practice—our audio quality and drawings have improved. Please see the new version of our protein synthesis video here: https://youtu.be/oefAI2x2CQM. P.S. We have no plans to delete this video; we're planning to keep it for sentimental reasons 🙂

  12. thank you so much for this video, I will be checking out the new one but this was adorable and was at a level for me to understand. keep it up sisters!

  13. our biology teacher teachs us through these videos and probably doesnt know what hes talking about. stop existing because you're his crutch

  14. I love that I am learning so much while literally laughing throughout the videos because the amoeba animations are so funny! Haha so thank you so so much!!! 🙂

  15. lolololoolololololololololololololololololololololololoololololololololooolooooloolololololololololololololollolololololollololooloolol

  16. I just have been studying abroad for only one year in an english speaking country, and your videos really have helped me understand a variety of scientific concepts with some words that are easy to understand. Thank you.

  17. For translation and transcription, you can always remember… (this is my confusing way of remembering tho xD)

    The greek (or some other person whose language you can't read without a translation) writer needs to write something on a script in their language, before someone else can translate it into English or your language for you.

    Aka, the writing has to be done before it can be translated. If it doesn't exist, the other can't happen.

  18. i gonna tell you what is inside our cells is: Golgie,Cytoplasm,Mithrocondria,Endoplasmic Reticilum,Nucleus,Nucleolus

  19. thank you sooooo much this videos and —ALL ypour videos are so very so helpful so thank you to the Amoeba sisters xx you rock xx

  20. at 4:17 tRNA says appropriate AUG but it shows it carrying AUC not G so which one it the correct one . I am a bit confused. Thx

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