Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells (Updated)

Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells (Updated)


Captions are on! Click CC at bottom right to turn off. Get updates from @AmoebaSisters on Twitter and Facebook! I’ll never forget a circular red spot I
developed on my arm when I was in elementary school. It left a lasting memory in my mind, because
it was something called ringworm and, with my active imagination, I thought I was now
infected a ring-shaped worm. I learned you’ve got to be careful about
names, because ringworm isn’t caused by a worm at all. It’s actually a fungus which it turns out
is pretty common and can be carried by many things like pets or soil. And since up to that point, I was used to
antibiotics as a way to treat infections, I assumed I’d be given antibiotics. But I wasn’t. I was given an antifungal cream instead, and
it went away. So it made me wonder – what made it different
from the bacteria that had made me sick in the past? Why wasn’t I given antibiotics? Well antibiotics target bacteria. Antibiotics can destroy bacteria by affecting
their ability to reproduce, damaging their cell walls, or interfering with their ability
to make proteins that they need to survive. Just some examples. But it turns out bacterial cells and fungal
cells are very different cell types. In fact, fungal cells have more in common
with your cells- which are animal cells- than they have in common with bacterial cells. And that has a lot to do with the comparison
of prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells which is what we will focus on. First, just a refresher—recall that the
modern cell theory includes the statement that all living things are made of one or
more cells. All living things. In the three domains of life, prokaryotes
are organisms that can be bacteria and archaea. They are unicellular which means they are
single-celled organisms. Eukaryotes are organisms that all fit in this
last domain Eukarya—eukaryotes may be protists, plants, animals, or fungi. They can be unicellular or they can be multicellular,
which means they can be made up of many cells. Like you! By the way, just to clarify: the word “prokaryote”
is typically used to refer to the organism itself. When you are describing its cell, you are
describing a prokaryotic cell. Same for eukaryote- “eukaryote” typically
refers to the organism itself and when you describe its cells, those are eukaryotic cells. Prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells do
have a lot in common. Both have DNA. That’s critical because DNA is the cells’
genetic material. Both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells
have ribosomes, which are small organelles—an organelle being like a “tiny” organ. The ribosomes have the important job of making
protein. Got to make protein. Both cell types have cytoplasm, the jelly
like fluid within cells. Both of them have a cell membrane- also known
as a plasma membrane- which is critical because it controls what goes in and out of the cell
and therefore maintaining homeostasis. All cells have a cell membrane! Now as for cell walls—most prokaryotic cells
have cell walls. Many eukaryotic cells— plant cells and fungus
cells for example—can have cell walls. But there are plenty of eukaryotic cells that
don’t have cell walls such as animal cells. What makes prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic
cells different is especially interesting. Eukaryotic cells are more complex than prokaryotic
cells. They tend to be larger than most prokaryotic
cells. And to help me remember some more differences
in this next part, I like to remember that “pro” in prokaryote rhymes with “no”
and “eu” in eukaryote rhymes with “do.” Prokaryotic cells have no nucleus to contain
their DNA. So you will find their DNA is not contained
within a nucleus; it’s a bit messy here. They have no membrane-bound organelles. Membrane-bound organelles are fancy organelles
that have their own membrane like the nucleus, mitochondria, the endoplasmic reticulum, and
the golgi apparatus. A big indicator of eukaryotic cells is this
nucleus- eukaryotic cells DO have a nucleus to contain their DNA. Depending on what type of eukaryotic cell
it is—it could have different types of membrane-bound organelles. For example, a plant cell is likely to have
chloroplasts while an animal cell would not. Wow, look at all this alphabetized vocabulary. If you want to try to practice your skills,
pause the video and see how many of these vocabulary words you can use to compare and
contrast prokaryotic cells with eukaryotic cells. It’s important to grasp that all cells of
living things fall in one of these two categories. And understanding the characteristics of these
two cell types can help us better understand the diversity of living things whether they
are archaea, bacteria, protists, fungi, plants, or animals. And in the case of my example- realizing whether
an infection you’re dealing with involves prokaryotic cells (such as bacteria) or eukaryotic
cells (such as the fungus). Well that’s it for the Amoeba Sisters, and
we remind you to stay curious!

100 Replies to “Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic Cells (Updated)”

  1. We have a resource for this new video here https://www.amoebasisters.com/handouts This is an updated video to our old "Prokaryote and Eukaryotes" video. The old video will still remain up on YouTube though, because we like to have evidence of what we've learned (as far as illustrations, audio, etc) as creators over the years. You can check out our milestones here! https://www.amoebasisters.com/milestones.html

  2. this video was linked in my university's course materials and I was prepared to some really boring stuff – was pleasantly surprised (and now i also think that the professor has some sense of humour)

  3. Hiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

  4. "i luv you baby!" thanks for the video, comparison beside each other is just wat i needed!!! u simplified some of biology notes for moi! *
    mwaah

  5. Ribosomes were traditionally not considered organelles as they are not membrane-bound. They are more akin to a mix of protein and RNA complexes. I see now that this nomenclature has been adjusted due to common usage and they are now referred to as non-membrane bound organelles. I find that weird, but they do perform a function so. Thanks for the update!

  6. When the anti biotic movie list came up (looking like a street fighter game) I HOWLED it was soooo funny and very clever i might add!!!

  7. If eukaryotic cells can be unicellular then why aren’t those unicellular cells under prokaryotic class? Also would it be safe to assume that the only main difference is the no nucleus on the prokaryotic cells?

  8. I love your channel it's so fun to learn and so well explained and you explain it so clearly it make super simple and easy to understand

  9. a way I learned how to remember that eukaryotes have a nucleus and prokaryotes don't is this:

    "Euks have nuks"

    This would remind me that eukaryotes have a nucleus, which would then remind me that prokaryotes don't have "nuks" or a nucleus
    Hope this helps XD~

  10. Erm… Bacteria is a pathogen right? you said that bacteria = prokaryotic and that Pathogens = Eukaryotic… This doesn't make sense

  11. Still, you need a video on the difference between Archaea and Bacteria and why they deserve a domain. In fact, the Linnean classification system is so bad because if you look at evolution all things are bifurcations. You should not have say three species in a genus and each level higher including extinct species should only be split in two.

  12. Oh my god I feel so bad I’ve just discovered your channel. This is SOOOOOO helpful and not boring. thanks for these wonderful videos!

  13. THANK GOODNESS FOR YOUR CHANNEL!!! When I am in lecture NONE of the information registers to me. It is almost like shes speaking gibberish. But as soon as i get out of class i go right to you guys and you help me decode what it is she is trying to tell me. ID BE LOST WITHOUT YOU!!!

  14. So basically Eu has more cells within itself while Pro only has itself.

    So in other words Eukaryote has Layers like onions!

  15. Hello Amoeba Sisters again! It is me-Professor Beata Yacura-Your scientist!🧬🧩👩‍🔬🔬💉🧫🦠🧪
    I have a question, what if scientists did an experiment to inject the nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles directly into prokaryotic cells?🤔

  16. This taught me more than 3 years in high school, 2 months of anxiety, and 1 week of depression. Thanks a lot…

    and 60 years of homework as well

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