Science Trek: Muscles

Science Trek: Muscles


>>>PRESENTATION OF “SCIENCE
TREK” ON IDAHO PUBLIC TELEVISION IS MADE POSSIBLE
THROUGH THE GENEROUS SUPPORT OF THE LAURA MOORE CUNNINGHAM
FOUNDATION, COMMITTED TO FULFILLING THE MOORE FAMILY
LEGACY OF BUILDING THE GREAT STATE OF IDAHO.>>>YOUR MUSCLES GIVE YOUR BODY
SHAPE AND MOVEMENT. MUSCLES HELP YOU MOVE, BREATHE,
DIGEST YOUR FOOD, AND PUMP BLOOD AROUND YOUR BODY. WANT TO LEARN MORE ABOUT
MUSCLES? WE’RE STANDING BY TO ANSWER
YOUR QUESTIONS. STAY TUNED, “SCIENCE TREK” IS
NEXT. *
*>>>HI, I’M JOAN CARTAN-HANSEN. WELCOME TO “SCIENCE TREK.” AND WELCOME TO THE PORTNEUF
MEDICAL CENTER HERE IN POCATELLO, IDAHO. WE’RE HERE TODAY TO ANSWER YOUR
QUESTIONS ABOUT MUSCLES AND THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM
BUT BEFORE WE DO, LET’S LEARN A LITTLE BIT MORE.>>YOU HAVE THREE TYPES OF
MUSCLES IN YOUR BODY.>>SKELETAL MUSCLES HELP YOU
MOVE.>>SMOOTH MUSCLES HELP YOU EAT
AND BREATHE.>>AND CARDIAC MUSCLES MAKE
YOUR HEART BEAT.>>YOU HAVE ABOUT 650 MUSCLES
IN YOUR BODY. AND THEY COME IN ALL SHAPES AND
SIZES. SOME ARE WIDE SHEETS OF TISSUE
LIKE THE MUSCLES IN YOUR BACK. OTHERS ARE CIRCLES OR
TRIANGLES. SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE MADE UP OF
LOG-SHAPED FIBERS WITH HUNDREDS AND HUNDREDS OF STRANDS. THE THINNEST STRANDS OVERLAP
ONE ANOTHER, LIKE FINGERS LACED TOGETHER. THERE ARE TWO TYPES OF FIBERS,
FAST TWITCH FIBERS CONTRACT QUICKLY, GIVING YOU A BURST OF
ENERGY, AND SLOW TWITCH FIBERS PROVIDE YOUR MUSCLES WITH A
SUSTAINED RELEASE, SO THE MUSCLE CAN ACT LONGER. SOME SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE
ATTACHED TO YOUR SKIN OR OTHER MUSCLES, BUT MOST ARE ATTACHED
TO BONES WITH TENDONS. WIGGLE YOUR FINGERS. YOU CAN SEE CORDS JUST UNDER
YOUR SKIN. THESE ARE THE TENDONS
CONNECTING MUSCLES IN YOUR LOWER ARM TO YOUR FINGER BONES. SKELETAL MUSCLES WORK IN PAIRS. WHEN YOU LIFT SOMETHING, ONE
MUSCLE CONTRACTS OR TIGHTENS AND THE OTHER MUSCLE RELAXES OR
LOOSENS. THE CONTRACTING AND RELAXING
ACTION PULLS UP THE MUSCLE AND YOUR ARM BONE.>>AND IT TAKES MORE THAN 300
MUSCLES WORKING TOGETHER JUST TO TAKE ONE SINGLE STEP.>>MUSCLES ARE THE MEAT OF THE
BODY. THEY MAKE UP ABOUT A THIRD TO
HALF OF YOUR BODY WEIGHT. MUSCLES ARE LOADED WITH BLOOD
VESSELS AND NERVES. BLOOD BRINGS MUSCLES FOOD AND
OXYGEN SO THEY CAN WORK AND TAKE AWAY WASTE PRODUCTS. AND SIGNALS FROM YOUR BRAIN
TRAVEL THROUGH THE NERVES TO TELL YOU MUSCLES WHAT TO DO. SKELETAL MUSCLES ARE VOLUNTARY,
THAT IS YOU CAN CONTROL THEM. SMOOTH MUSCLES ARE INVOLUNTARY,
THAT IS THEY WORK WITHOUT YOU HAVING TO THINK ABOUT THEM. SMOOTH MUSCLES ARE FOUND IN
PLACES LIKE THE WALLS OF YOUR STOMACH AND BLOOD VESSELS. WHEN YOU GET COLD, TINY SMOOTH
MUSCLES PULL ON THE HAIRS OF YOUR SKIN AND YOU GET
GOOSEBUMPS. CARDIAC MUSCLES ARE ALSO
INVOLUNTARY AND THEY EXIST ONLY IN YOUR HEART. AND UNLIKE OTHER MUSCLES, IT
NEVER GETS TIRED. CARDIAC MUSCLES CONTRACT TO
SQUEEZE BLOOD OUT OF YOUR HEART AND RELAX TO FILL YOUR HEART
WITH BLOOD. YOU CAN INJURE YOUR MUSCLES. MUSCLE STRAINS HAPPEN WHEN
MUSCLE FIBERS STRETCH TOO FAR OR TEAR. BUT WITH ICE AND REST, YOUR
BODY CAN USUALLY HEAL ITSELF IN TIME. YOU CAN KEEP YOUR MUSCLES
HEALTHY BY EATING RIGHT, LOTS OF VITAMINS, MINERALS AND
PROTEIN, BY DRINKING WATER AND BY KEEPING YOUR MUSCLES STRONG. AND THE BEST WAY TO DO THAT IS
TO EXERCISE.>>IF YOU DON’T EXERCISE, YOUR
MUSCLES CAN SHRINK AND LOSE STRENGTH. SO GET ACTIVE EVERY DAY.>>>JOINING ME NOW TO ANSWER
YOUR QUESTIONS ABOUT MUSCLES AND THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM IS
DR. TONY JOSEPH, A MEMBER OF THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF FAMILY
PHYSICIANS, THE IDAHO ACADEMY OF FAMILY PHYSICIANS AND THE
AMERICAN MEDICAL SOCIETY OF SPORTS MEDICINE. THANK YOU FOR JOINING US.>>IT’S GREAT TO BE HERE AND
THIS IS A GREAT OPPORTUNITY FOR ME, AS WELL.>>OKAY, LET’S GO TO YOUR
QUESTIONS.>>HI. MY NAME IS DEBORAH. AND MY QUESTION IS WHAT ARE
MUSCLES MADE OF?>>MUSCLES ARE MADE OUT OF A
SUBSTANCE CALLED PROTEIN AND PROTEIN IS WHAT MAKES UP THE
MAKEUP OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE MUSCLE AND THAT’S WHAT HOLDS IT
TOGETHER.>>MY NAME IS BETTY. AND MY QUESTION IS CAN YOU
TRANSPLANT A MUSCLE?>>ONE OF THE MUSCLES YOU CAN
TRANSPLANT AT THIS TIME, IS A HEART MUSCLE AND IT’S ONE
ALMOST EVERY DAY AROUND THE WORLD AND THERE ARE VARIOUS
PROGRAMS TO SAVE THE HEART, WHICH IS ONE BIG MUSCLE, AND
TRANSPLANT IT INTO ANOTHER PERSON.>>HI, MY NAME IS AMY. AND I’M WONDERING HOW MANY
MUSCLES DO WE HAVE IN OUR BODY?>>WE HAVE APPROXIMATELY 650
MUSCLES IN OUR BODY.>>HI, MY NAME IS KENDRA. MY QUESTION IS WHY DO MUSCLES
HURT AFTER EXERCISE?>>WELL, THERE’S TWO REASONS
WHY OUR MUSCLES HURT AFTER WE EXERCISE. IMMEDIATELY AFTER EXERCISE, OUR
MUSCLES WILL ACCUMULATE A SUBSTANCE CALLED LACTIC ACID
AND THAT LACTIC ACID, WHEN IT’S IN YOUR MUSCLES, WILL CAUSE
YOUR MUSCLES TO BURN AND ACHE. THERE’S ALSO A DELAYED
RESPONSE, ONE OR TWO CLAUSE LATER IF YOU NOTICE WHEN YOU
RUN HARD, YOUR MUSCLES ACHE. THEY ACTUALLY BREAK DOWN AND IT
TEARS THE CELLULAR STRUCTURE OF THE MUSCLES. THAT FORCES OR GIVES YOUR BODY
STIMULUS TO MAKE A STRONGER MUSCLE AND IT WILL COME BACK
THE NEXT TIME BEING STRONGER.>>REESE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW HOW
COME WE SHIVER OR GET GOOSEBUMPS WHEN WE’RE COLD OR
SCARED?>>WHAT WE HAVE IN OUR SKIN IS
A SERIES OF INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES, MUSCLES THAT WE DON’T
TELL TO CONTRACT. WHEN THESE MUSCLES CONTRACT,
THEY PINCH UP OUR SKIN IN A METHOD THAT CREATES LITTLE
BUMPS WE CALL GOOSEBUMPS OR GOOSEFLESH AND THOSE LITTLE
BUMPS ARE A WAY OF TELLING OUR SKIN TO TAKE THAT BLOOD THAT
NORMALLY GOES TO IT AND DIVERT IT BACK INTO OUR BODY AND THAT
WAY WE CAN KEEP THAT WARM BLOOD INSIDE OF OURSELVES. WE ALSO SHIVER AS A WAY TO
CONTRACT OUR MUSCLES. AGAIN, WE DON’T TELL OUR
MUSCLES TO DO THAT. USUALLY, AFTER WE GET
GOOSEBUMPS, WE’LL START SHIVERING AND THAT SHIVERING IS
OUR MUSCLES GENERATING ENERGY. THAT ENERGY THAT THEY ALREADY
HAVE STORED IN THEM TO CREATE MORE HEAT FOR OUR BODIES.>>HI. MY QUESTION IS WHAT IS THE MOST
IMPORTANT MUSCLE IN YOUR BODY?>>WELL, THAT’S A MATTER OF
OPINION AND IT DEPENDS ON CERTAIN PEOPLE’S OPINION ABOUT
THAT. BUT I WOULD HAVE TO SAY THAT
OUR HEART IS OUR MOST IMPORTANT MUSCLE BECAUSE WITHOUT THAT, IF
IT STOPS FUNCTIONING, THEN WE STOP FUNCTIONING. SO I WOULD HANDS DOWN MY CHOICE
WOULD BE THE HEART.>>HI, MY NAME IS TONY. MY QUESTION IS WHY IS
EXERCISING IMPORTANT FOR THE HEALTHY MUSCLES?>>WELL, TONY, THAT’S A GREAT
QUESTION BECAUSE A LOT OF PEOPLE DON’T SEE THE REASON FOR
EXERCISE, BUT EXERCISE DOES SEVERAL THINGS: IT NOT ONLY
STRENGTHENS THE MUSCLES OF YOUR WHOLE BODY AND HOLDS YOUR
SKELETON TOGETHER BUT IT ALSO STRENGTHENS YOUR HEART AND YOUR
HEART REQUIRES EXERCISE TO MAKE IT STRONGER THAN JUST EVERYDAY
LIFE. SO IF SOMETHING HAPPENS TO YOU,
IT CAN RESPOND TO THAT WITH MORE FORCE. WE NEED EXTRA FORCE IN OUR
MUSCLES OF OUR BODY AND OUR HEART TO KEEP US GOING
THROUGHOUT OUR LIFETIME.>>KYLE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW ARE
ALL MUSCLES MADE OF THE SAME THING?>>WELL, WE HAVE DIFFERENT
MUSCLES IN OUR BODIES. IN OUR VOLUNTARY MUSCLES THEY
ARE MADE OF THE SAME PROTEINS AND THE SAME STRUCTURAL MAKEUP. THE SAME HOLDS TRUE FOR OUR
INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES, EITHER IN THE SMOOTH OR CARDIAC MUSCLES. THEY’RE MADE UP OF — THEY ARE
A LITTLE BIT DIFFERENT IN THEIR STRUCTURE, BUT ALL OF THOSE
CATEGORIES OF MUSCLES HAVE THE SAME SUBSTANCE.>>HELLO, MY NAME IS JENNIFER. AND MY QUESTION IS WHAT IS THE
BIGGEST MUSCLE?>>JENNIFER, THAT’S A GREAT
QUESTION. THE THICKEST MUSCLE IN THE BODY
IS THE GLUTEUS MAXIMUS. THAT IS THE MUSCLE THAT’S
BEHIND YOU, YOUR BOTTOM, OR YOUR BUTT AND IT’S SOMETHING
YOU SIT ON BUT IT’S ALSO A VERY POWERFUL MUSCLE USED FOR
RUNNING, JUMPING AND A LOT OF THE ACTIVITIES THAT YOU DO TO
CONTROL YOUR LEGS.>>HI, MY NAME IS JADEN. AND MY QUESTION IS DO MUSCLES
HAVE FLUIDS IN THEM?>>MUSCLES HAVE FLUID IN THEM. THEY HAVE A VERY LARGE BLOOD
SUPPLY, WHICH THE MAJORITY OF FLOOD IS FLUID AND WITHIN THE
STRUCTURE OF MUSCLE WE HAVE WATER, WATER HELPS CARRY SOME
OF THE CALCIUM AND OTHER SUBSTANCES THAT HELP THE
MUSCLES FUNCTION AND CONTRACT.>>THE SMALLEST MUSCLE IN YOUR
BODY IS IN YOUR EAR. IT’S SMALLER THAN A GRAIN OF
RICE AND MOVES SMALL BONES THAT HELP YOU HEAR. THE LONGEST MUSCLES ARE IN YOUR
LEGS. THEY STRETCH FROM YOUR HIPS TO
THE INSIDE OF YOUR KNEES. BY THE WAY, MUSCLES NEVER PUSH
BODY PARTS, THEY ALWAYS PULL.>>HI, MY NAME IS ISABELLA. AND MY QUESTION IS DO BOYS
DEVELOP MORE MUSCLES THAN GIRLS AND, IF SO, THEN WHY?>>FOR MUSCLES, THE SAME NUMBER
OF MUSCLES DEVELOP IN GIRLS AS BOYS. BOYS JUST TEND TO GET BIGGER
MUSCLES BECAUSE THEY HAVE MORE OF A HORMONE CALLED
TESTOSTERONE AND TESTOSTERONE TENDS TO MAKE BOYS’ MUSCLES
BIGGER BUT WOMEN HAVE IT AS WELL AND CAN DEVELOP MUSCLES
EQUALLY IN THE SAME NUMBER AS MEN.>>COLE WOULD LIKE TO KNOW WHAT
KEEPS OUR MUSCLES IN PLACE?>>WELL, THAT’S A GREAT
QUESTION, COLE, BECAUSE THERE’S SEVERAL THINGS THAT KEEP IT IN
PLACE. WE HAVE A SERIES OF MEMBRANES
THAT GO AROUND THE MUSCLES THAT HOLD IT AND KEEP ITS SHAPE OR
FORM. SOME OF THE FORMS ARE FLAT,
SOME OF THEM ARE MORE OF A FEATHER OR WHAT WE CALL A
PENNATE STRUCTURE ON EITHER END IT’S ANCHORED TO A BONE, EITHER
THROUGH A TENDON OR ANOTHER ATTACHMENT POINT AND THAT GIVES
IT ITS RESTING SHAPE.>>HELLO, MY NAME IS JACKSON. AND MY QUESTION IS HOW CAN YOU
KEEP YOUR MUSCLES HEALTHY?>>ONE OF THE THINGS TO KEEP
YOUR MUSCLES HEALTHY IS TO EXERCISE. IF YOU EXERCISE EVERY DAY,
EITHER BY TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF EXERCISES, LIFTING WEIGHTS
OR RUNNING OR SOME SORT OF SPORTING ACTIVITY, YOUR MUSCLES
WILL STAY STRONG AND HEALTHY AND KEEP THEM FROM TEARING.>>HI, MY NAME IS LUKE. MY QUESTION IS WHAT’S THE
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FAST TWITCH MUSCLES AND SLOW TWITCH
MUSCLES?>>OUR BODY HAS TWO TYPES OF
VOLUNTARY MUSCLES. SLOW TWITCH MUSCLES ARE MOSTLY
THE MUSCLES THAT WE USE EVERY DAY TO WALK, TO DO MOVEMENTS
THAT DON’T REQUIRE WHAT I WOULD CALL EXPLOSIVE ENERGY. IF YOU JOG AT A VERY SLOW RATE,
YOU USE SLOW TWITCH MUSCLES. THEY HAVE A LOT MORE BLOOD
FLOWING TO THEM AND CAN USE ENERGY VERY SLOWLY. FAST TWITCH MUSCLES ARE USED
WHEN YOU’RE FORCED TO SPRINT OR RUN AND THOSE MUSCLES HAVE A
SYSTEM WHERE THEY USE ENERGY VERY QUICKLY AND STORE ENERGY
SO THAT YOU CAN TAKE OFF VERY FAST.>>MORGAN WOULD LIKE TO KNOW
HOW STRONG CAN YOUR MUSCLES BE?>>WELL, THERE ARE CERTAIN
LIMITATIONS TO HOW STRONG OUR MUSCLES CAN BE. OUR MUSCLES CAN BE ONLY AS
STRONG AS THE TENDONS THAT HOLD THEM TOGETHER. IF OUR MUSCLES BECOME STRONGER
THAN OUR TENDONS, THEN THEY WILL PULL OR TEAR OUR TENDONS
OFF OUR BONES. SO THEY CAN BE STRONG TO A
CERTAIN EXTENT BUT WE’VE FOUND OUT THROUGH RESEARCH THAT A LOT
OF THE RESEARCH IS CATTLE OR COWS, THAT WE CAN MAKE MUSCLES
STRONGER THAN WE REALIZE, EVEN 10, 20 YEARS AGO. SO THE LIMITS OF A MUSCLE’S
STRENGTH ARE STILL BEING REALIZED AT THIS POINT IN TIME. BUT IT WON’T BE INFINITE. IT WILL BE THE LIMITATIONS OF
THE SCHEDULEICAL SYSTEM AND WHAT CAN HOLD US TOGETHER.>>MY NAME IS LIN. MY QUESTION IS HOW DO
INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES DO WHAT THEY DO?>>THAT IS A GREAT QUESTION. THE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES ARE
CONNECTED TO YOUR NERVOUS SYSTEM AND TO YOUR BRAIN AND,
FOR EXAMPLE, WITH YOUR HEART, THE MUSCLES HAVE A SET OF
PACEMAKERS THAT MOVE THE MUSCLES AT A SET AMOUNT OF
TIME. WHEN YOU EAT, THE SMOOTH
MUSCLES OF YOUR ESOPHAGUS AND STOMACH KNOW THAT IT’S TIME TO
CONTRACT THROUGH FEEDBACK MECHANISMS TO YOUR BRAIN.>>HI, MY NAME IS STEPHEN. MY QUESTION IS HOW DO MUSCLES
WORK?>>MUSCLES WORK TOGETHER SORT
OF A TEAMWORK APPROACH, WHILE ONE MUSCLE PULLS, THE OTHER ONE
PUSHES. THAT IS THEY GO OPPOSITE
DIRECTIONS. THAT WAY, YOUR BODY ISN’T LOOSE
AND FLOPPY AND WE HAVE MUSCLES THAT WORK TOGETHER, THAT IS ONE
MUSCLE KNOWS WHAT THE OTHER MUSCLE IS DOING AND SO WE
BALANCE THESE MUSCLES OUT THROUGHOUT OUR BODIES.>>CARL WOULD LIKE TO KNOW HOW
LONG DOES IT TAKE FOR MUSCLES TO GROW STRONGER?>>ALL RIGHT, FOR OUR MUSCLES
TO GROW STRONGER, WE TYPICALLY, IF WE WANT TO MAKE THEM
STRONGER, FOR EXAMPLE, LIFTING HEAVIER OBJECTS OR WEIGHTS, IF
WE WERE IN ANCIENT GREECE, WE WOULD BE LIFTING CALVES OR
COWS, THAT’S HOW THEY GOT STRONGER, AND IT TAKES ONE TO
TWO DAYS TO GET A RESPONSE FROM OUR MUSCLES AFTER THEY BREAK
DOWN TO TELL THEM TO GROW. AND AFTER THAT, IT TAKES ONE TO
TWO WEEKS FOR THOSE MUSCLES TO GROW STRONGER.>>YOU HAVE ONE MUSCLE IN YOUR
BODY THAT’S LIKE NO OTHER. IT’S YOUR HEART. SO LET’S LEARN A LITTLE BIT
MORE.>>TUCKED SAFELY WITHIN YOUR
CHEST IS YOUR HEART. IT’S ACTUALLY A MUSCLE, ABOUT
THE SIZE OF YOUR FIST AND WITH EVERY SQUEEZE, YOUR HEART FILLS
WITH BLOOD AND THEN EMPTIES OUT. THAT POUNDING YOU FEEL IS
CALLED THE HEARTBEAT. PUT YOUR HAND ON THE SIDE OF
YOUR NECK OR RIGHT UNDERNEATH YOUR WRIST AND YOU CAN FEEL IT
BEATING. IT BEATS EVERY MINUTE, EVERY
DAY AND NIGHT, NO MATTER WHAT YOU’RE DOING. THE HEART SENDS BLOOD
THROUGHOUT YOUR ENTIRE BODY AND IT’S NO SMALL TASK, PUMPING
BLOOD TO AND FROM EVERY VEIN AND BLOOD VESSELS. IF YOUR BLOOD VESSELS WERE
STRETCHED END TO END, THEY WOULD CIRCLE THE GLOBE THREE
TIMES. IN A GROWNUP, A HEART BEATS
ABOUT 70 TIMES A MINUTE. IN AN 8-YEAR-OLD, IT’S ABOUT 90
BEATS A MINUTE. AND IN A NEWBORN BABY, THE
HEART BEATS AROUND 140 BEATS PER MINUTE. WHEN YOU KICK UP A STORM AT TAI
KWAN DO OR RUN HARD WITH YOUR FRIENDS AT A PLAYGROUND, YOUR
HEART PUMPS FASTER AND PUMPS MORE BLOOD TO FEED OXYGEN AND
NUTRIENTS TO YOUR MUSCLES. WHEN YOU’RE SITTING STILL OR
READ, IT DOESN’T PUMP AS HARD. SO HOW DOES IT KNOW WHEN YOU’RE
CHANGING GEARS? YOUR HEART IS KIND OF LIKE A
SMALL, EFFICIENT POWER PLANT. IT’S CONSTANTLY AWARE OF WHAT
THE REST OF YOUR BODY IS DOING AND WHAT ENERGY YOU NEED TO
KICK INTO ACTION. YOUR HEART DOES THAT BY
GENERATING AN ELECTRICAL IMPULSE. IT SENDS SIGNALS ALL OVER YOUR
BODY, EVERYTHING FROM YOUR FINGERS TO YOUR TOES GETS A ZAP
OF ENERGY NEEDED TO GET GOING. KEEPING YOUR HEART HEALTHY IS
IMPORTANT TO STAYING HEALTHY. SOMETIMES, PARTS OF THE HEART
CAN GET CLOGGED, THAT’S THE SIGN OF A VERY SERIOUS ILLNESS. IT’S CALLED CARDIOVASCULAR
DISEASE. AND IT’S THE NUMBER ONE CAUSE
OF DEATH IN THIS COUNTRY. SO HOW DO YOU KEEP THAT FROM
HAPPENING? WELL, YOU CAN START BY EATING
HEALTHY FOODS. DOCTORS ENCOURAGE CHILDREN TO
START GOOD EATING HABITS WHEN THEY’RE YOUNG AND KEEP GOOD
HABITS AS THEY GET OLDER. ANOTHER GOOD WAY TO DEEP YOUR
HEART BEATING STRONG IS TO GET PLENTY OF EXERCISE. RUNNING AROUND WITH FRIENDS,
JUMPING ROPE, ANYTHING THAT KEEPS YOU MOVING. THOSE ARE THE BEST WAYS TO MAKE
SURE YOUR HEART MUSCLES KEEP PUMPING AND YOU STAY HEART
HEALTHY YOUR WHOLE LIFE.>>MY NAME IS HUNTER. MY QUESTION IS IS THERE ANY
PART OF OUR BODY THAT DOESN’T HAVE MUSCLE?>>WELL, IN OUR BODY, AS FAR AS
MOVEMENT AND OTHER FUNCTIONS, MUSCLES ARE A PART OF ALMOST
EVERY PART OF OUR BODY AND THERE’S LITERALLY NO PART OF
OUR BODY THAT ISN’T CONNECTED TO A MUSCLE IN SOME FASHION.>>MARK WOULD LIKE TO KNOW ARE
MUSCLES RED BECAUSE OF THE BLOOD THAT RUNS THROUGH THEM?>>WELL, THERE’S SEVERAL THINGS
THAT MAKE MUSCLES RED. ONE IS THE BLOOD THAT RUNS
THROUGH THEM. THE OTHER THING THAT MAKES
MUSCLES RED IS A SUBSTANCE CALLED MYOGLOBIN AND IT GIVES
MUSCLES THAT REDDISH COLOR. MUSCLES THAT HAVE MORE OF THE
BLOOD VESSELS AND THE MYOGLOBIN LOOK REDDER THAN OTHERS. THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ON A
CHICKEN, BREAST MEAT AND THIGH MEAT, THE THIGH MEAT HAS MORE
OF THOSE SUBSTANCES.>>WHAT IS THE MOST POWERFUL
MUSCLE IN THE HUMAN BODY?>>THAT IS A GREAT QUESTION,
AND IT’S NOT WHAT YOU THINK IT’S GOING TO BE BECAUSE IF WE
LOOK AT THE TWO TYPES OF MUSCLES, VOLUNTARY AND
INVOLUNTARY, IN THE WORLD OF INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES, THE MOST
POWERFUL MUSCLE IN THAT WORLD IS OUR HEART AND THAT MAKES
SENSE BECAUSE IT’S BEATING ALL THE TIME, IT HAS TO FORCE BLOOD
AND MOVE BLOOD THROUGHOUT YOUR WHOLE BODY. THE MOST POWERFUL VOLUNTARY
MUSCLE IN YOUR BODY IS NOT WHAT YOU THINK IT WOULD BE. I WOULD THINK IT WOULD BE YOUR
THIGH MUSCLE BUT IT IS ACTUALLY OUR TONGUE AND OUR TONGUE
CONTROLS SPEECH AND OTHER THINGS, SUCH AS EATING AND IT
IS THE MOST POWERFUL MUSCLE IN OUR BODY.>>DANNY WOULD LIKE TO KNOW HOW
MANY MUSCLES ARE IN THE HEART?>>WELL, IT WOULD SEEM LIKE THE
HEART WOULD BE DIVIDED INTO DIFFERENT MUSCLES OR MUSCLE
GROUPS BUT ACTUALLY THE HEART IS ONE BIG MUSCLE. IT WORKS TOGETHER TO PUMP THE
BLOOD EITHER THROUGH THE RIGHT SIDE OR THE LEFT SIDE BUT ALL
THOSE WORK TOGETHER, EVEN THOUGH THEY CONTRACT AT
DIFFERENT TIMES AS ONE BIG MUSCLE.>>HI. WE HAVE BEEN READING ABOUT OUR
BODY HAVING MUSCLES. MY QUESTION IS DO WE HAVE ROUGH
MUSCLES?>>WE DO NOT HAVE ROUGH
MUSCLES. WE HAVE SMOOTH MUSCLES THAT
CONTROL A LOT OF THE FUNCTIONS OF OUR BODY THAT WE DON’T HAVE
TO THINK ABOUT. THEY’RE INVOLUNTARY SUCH AS
SWALLOWING, YOUR STOMACH AND OTHER FUNCTIONS INSIDE YOUR
BODY.>>AVA WOULD LIKE TO KNOW CAN
MUSCLES POP?>>WELL, WHEN MUSCLES POP, THAT
POP IS USUALLY A BAD SIGN, THAT’S USUALLY THE MUSCLE
TEARING OR STRAINING AND A LOT OF PEOPLE WHEN THEY POP A
MUSCLE, THEY’LL COME INTO MY OFFICE AND SAY I FELT MY MUSCLE
AND MY CALF POP, THAT WAS THAT MUSCLE TEARING OR STRAINING.>>HELLO. MY QUESTION IS WHAT WOULD
HAPPEN IF WE HAD NO SKELETAL MUSCLES?>>WELL, MOSES IF WE HAD NO
SKELETAL MUSCLES, THAT’S A FUNNY QUESTION BECAUSE IF WE
HAD NO SKELETAL MUSCLES, WE WOULD FALL TO THE GROUND IN A
CRUMPLE OF BONES AND ORGANS AND WE WOULDN’T BE ABLE TO MOVE AND
SO LIFE AS WE KNOW IT WOULD NOT BE THE SAME.>>HELLO, MY NAME IS KATIE FROM
VALLEY VIEW ELEMENTARY. MY QUESTION IS WHEN YOU WORK
OUT, HOW DOES IT MAKE YOUR MUSCLES STRONGER?>>WHEN WE WORK OUT, OUR
MUSCLES WILL BREAK DOWN A LITTLE BIT EACH TIME WE WORK
OUT. FOR EXAMPLE, IF YOU LIFT
WEIGHTS, THE NEXT DAY YOU MAY BE SORE. THAT SORENESS IS THE MUSCLE
BREAKING DOWN. WITH THAT, THERE’S A SIGNAL
BACK TO YOUR BODY THAT YOUR MUSCLES WILL START GETTING
BIGGER AND STRONGER. IT WILL STIMULATE YOUR MUSCLES
TO GROW AND THAT CAN OCCUR THROUGHOUT YOUR LIFETIME.>>WHAT DO MUSCLES DO?>>WELL, MUSCLES DO FUNCTIONS
IN A DIFFERENT WAY THAN WE THINK OF BECAUSE MUSCLES WILL
WORK VOLUNTARILY FOR US, THEY’LL MOVE OUR BODIES SO THAT
WE CAN GO FROM ONE END OF OUR HOUSE TO THE OTHER, BUT WHILE
YOU’RE THINKING ABOUT THE FACT THAT YOU WANT TO GO GET A GLASS
OF MILK FROM THE REFRIGERATOR, OUR INVOLUNTARY MUSCLES ARE
PREPARING FOR THAT GLASS OF MILK BY HELPING US SWALLOW THAT
DOWN AND YOU DON’T EVEN HAVE TO THINK ABOUT THAT. AND MEANWHILE, YOUR HEART IS
PUMPING TO MOVE BLOOD THROUGH YOUR BODY TO ALLOW YOUR MUSCLES
TO WORK AND/OR YOUR STOMACH OR YOUR ESOPHAGUS TO DRINK THAT
MILK. SO THERE ARE A LOT OF THINGS
BEHIND THE SCENES THAT HELP THEM KEEP US FUNCTIONING.>>HI, MY NAME IS QUINN. MY QUESTION IS HOW MANY
QUESTIONS IS HOW MANY MUSCLES DOES A FROG HAVE?>>ALL LIVING CREATURES HAVE
MUSCLES AND THEY REQUIRE THOSE MUSCLES TO MOVE. THE FROG HAS 126 MUSCLES. BUT FROM MY EXPERIENCE WITH MY
PET FROG, I KNOW THAT MOST OF THOSE MUSCLES, AT LEAST THE
STRONGEST ONES ARE GOING TO BE IN THE LEG.>>ALISON WOULD LIKE TO KNOW
HOW ARE OUR MUSCLES CONNECTED TO OUR BRAIN SO THAT THEY CAN
MOVE?>>WELL, OUR MUSCLES ARE
CONNECTED TO OUR BRAIN THROUGH THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND NERVES
THAT COME OUT OF OUR BRAIN WILL TELL OUR MUSCLES HOW TO MOVE. THERE’S A SERIES OF NERVES, NOT
UNLIKE TELEPHONE WIRES OR ELECTRICAL WIRES THAT GO INTO
OUR HOUSE, AND THEY WILL SEND A SIGNAL FROM THE BRAIN DOWN TO
THE MUSCLES TO TELL IT TO CONTRACT OR TO MOVE.>>BEFORE WE RUN OUT OF TIME,
WHY DID YOU DECIDE TO BECOME A DOCTOR WHO STUDIES MUSCLES?>>WELL, WHEN I WAS PLAYING
SPORTS IN HIGH SCHOOL, I WAS FASCINATED BY HOW OUR BODIES
GOT STRONGER AND HOW WE COULD IMPROVE OUR PERFORMANCE THROUGH
EXERCISE, AND THEN WHEN I WENT TO MEDICAL SCHOOL, I MET A
CARDIOLOGIST WHO JUST WORKED ON EXERCISE AND HE DID RESEARCH ON
IT AND I BECAME FASCINATED WITH IT AND AT SOME POINT I THOUGHT
ABOUT BEING A CARDIOLOGIST BUT AT THAT TIME, THEY HAD CREATED
A NEW SPECIALTY CALLED SPORTS MEDICINE AND THAT ENTAILED ALL
THE THINGS I WANTED TO DO, TREATING ATHLETES AND SEEING
INJURIES TO ATHLETES ON THE FIELD AND HOW I COULD NOT ONLY
IMPROVE OR HELP THEM RETURN TO ACTIVITY FASTER AND SAFER BUT
ALSO HELP PREVENT INJURIES BEFORE THEY EVEN HURT
THEMSELVES. SO IT WAS A GOOD FIT FOR ME.>>AND IF SOMEONE IS INTERESTED
IN WORKING WITH MUSCLES LIVING, WHAT SHOULD THEY STUDY IN
SCHOOL?>>IT STARTS WITH THE BASICS,
YOU HAVE TO STUDY ALL THE FACTORS AND ALL THE PROGRAMS
THAT GO INTO MEDICINE OR BIOLOGY AND THAT WOULD START
WITH MATH AND SOME OF YOUR BASIC SCIENCE. WITH MATH, YOU LEARN HOW TO DO
SOME OF THE — OR SOLVE SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THAT GO ALONG WITH
MEDICINE AND YOU USE IT EVERY DAY. I USE IT EVERY DAY IN MY
PRACTICE. AND SO YOU HAVE TO START HAVING
A PASSION OR AN INTEREST FOR THOSE BASIC STUDIES AND CARRY
THAT ON THROUGH HIGH SCHOOL, COLLEGE AND GRADUATE STUDIES IF
THAT’S WHAT YOU WANT TO DO.>>THANK YOU, DOCTOR BUT I’M
SORRY WE’VE RUN OUT OF TIME. I APPRECIATE YOU JOINING US
TODAY.>>IT’S BEEN A GREAT
OPPORTUNITY FOR ME AS WELL AND I HOPE ALL THE CHILDREN OUT
THERE HAVE LEARNED A LOT MORE ABOUT MUSCLES TODAY.>>AND OUR THANKS TO THE FOLKS
HERE AT THE PORTNEUF MEDICAL CENTER FOR HOSTING US. YOU CAN LEARN LOTS MORE ABOUT
MUSCLES AND THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM AND LOTS OF SCIENTIFIC TOPICS
ON THE SCIENCE TREK WEB SITE. AND WE’LL ANSWER MORE QUESTIONS
ABOUT MUSCLES ON THE “SCIENCE TREK: THE WEB SHOW.” AND IF YOU WANT TO SUBMIT A
QUESTION FOR “SCIENCE TREK,” IT’S EASY, AND YOU AND YOUR
CLASS CAN WIN PRIZES. YOU CAN SEND IT AS AN EMAIL OR
AS A VIDEO QUESTION. RECORD IT ON YOUR WEBCAM OR
CELL PHONE. AND IF YOU’RE AN EDUCATOR, WE
LEND YOU A CAMERA. OUR LAST PRIZE WINNER WAS BROCK
IN AMY PETERSON’S CLASS AT OWYHEE HARBOR SCHOOL IN BOISE. SO TO FIND OUT ALL ABOUT
MUSCLES AND THE MUSCULAR SYSTEM, HOW TO SEND IN YOUR
QUESTIONS AND HOW TO WIN, GO TO THE “SCIENCE TREK” WEBSITE. AND EACH WEEK, CHECK OUT MY
BLOG FOR THE LATEST SCIENCE NEWS FOR KIDS. YOU’LL FIND IT ALL AT
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