We Found Radioactive Traces From Nuclear Bombs in the Mariana Trench

We Found Radioactive Traces From Nuclear Bombs in the Mariana Trench


The Mariana Trench is the deepest, darkest
part of our ocean. At a maximum depth of 11,000 meters, it’s
an extreme place that’s home to borderline alien-looking creatures. Scientists like to visit the trench to understand
how life could possibly survive and on one trip, a group found something unexpected
inside the muscle tissues of deep sea crustaceans. There were traces of bomb carbon, or carbon-14;
a special radioactive isotope that surged into the atmosphere after decades of nuclear
weapon tests. While it’s a surprise that a human signature
somehow found its way that far down — there are actually traces of bomb carbon everywhere,
even inside you. During the Cold War, we tested a lot of nuclear
weapons. When a bomb goes off, you had nuclear reactions
of either fission or fusion occurring, with a large amount of neutrons being basically
blasted in all directions from the center of that explosion. Those extra neutrons in the atmosphere made
extra carbon-14. Carbon-14 is a naturally produced radioisotope. It’s made in the upper atmosphere from cosmic
ray interactions with gas atoms. But during that period of time when we set
off hundreds of nuclear bombs… the concentration of carbon-14 in the atmosphere almost doubled. So, you see a very high spike. When they stopped doing tests, the concentration in the atmosphere
started to go down. The carbon-14 was still there. It hung out in the atmosphere until it combined
with oxygen to make carbon dioxide and then that carbon dioxide started to get pulled
out of the atmosphere, getting incorporated into the biosphere and into the oceans. So everything that’s alive at that time was
labeled with this extra carbon-14 and that increase is called the bomb pulse. Everyone who’s alive now has some of the bomb
pulse in them. It may sound concerning, but the amount of
bomb carbon you have in you isn’t harmful. There is natural radioactivity everywhere. Everything that’s alive is radioactive as
well as have carbon-14. In a surprise twist from the atomic testing
era, Bruce and his colleagues uncovered a way to use traces of that bomb carbon to clock
the age of human cells and tissues. I was at an American Chemical Society meeting
where there was a special focus session on the use of accelerators in nuclear chemistry. Another speaker in that session was looking
at metals in Alzheimer’s plaques. He said, “We don’t really know how old the
plaques are.” And I thought, hmm, I think I know a way where
we could actually measure that. And that was my start of doing bomb pulse
biology Every tissue turns over at different rates. Different types of cells are being born and
replaced, some turn over very, very quickly. You may be a certain age, but your skeleton
is likely a different one. So how do you measure the amount of bomb carbon
in something as small as a cell to find a birth date? Well, you need a couple things. First, an understanding of how to do radiocarbon
dating, a technique that’s been around since the 1940s. Carbon comes in basically three different
flavors. 99% of carbon is carbon-12, it has six protons
and six neutrons. Carbon-13 has again six protons, but now seven
neutrons. Carbon-14 has six protons and eight neutrons. All that chemistry is the same, but we can
actually trace the different atoms by mass. Because carbon-14 is radioactive with a half-life
of about 5,730 years, the concentration of carbon-14 actually decreases over time. And that decrease in carbon-14 concentration
is what’s used to do radiocarbon dating. By measuring the ratio of carbon-14 in a sample
to the amount of carbon-14 in the atmosphere, they can decipher the age. But figuring out how much there is in tissue
requires skills in advanced chemistry and a really big machine. The measurement is actually fairly easy. The chemistry that goes into doing a sample
prep is really the hardest thing to do. We need about 10 million cells to get enough
DNA to do an analysis. Once you’ve separated the different type of
cell that you want, then you have to harvest the DNA and clean it up
We add some copper oxide to it and evacuate a tube and seal it with a torch. We then combust that material to convert all
that carbon to carbon dioxide again. That carbon dioxide gets reduced to elemental
carbon in ion powder and that’s actually what we measure in the ion source. Once they’ve got that down, they’ll put
the samples into targets for the mass spec accelerator. The targets are little aluminum sample holders
that have a little hole in them about a millimeter in diameter. It then goes into a sample wheel and put in
the ion source. We use a cesium sputter ion source and it
makes negative ion we set up an electric field to extract the negative ions out of that through
the plasma mass that’s right in front of the target. We have this negative ion beam that’s coming
out of the ion source. We then put it through a low energy magnet
to select the mass that we want. It gets injected into the accelerator. The accelerator has a very high positive voltage
at the center, it’s called the terminal. We then have a couple of focusing elements,
a couple more magnets, and then we measure carbon 14 counts in a particle detector at
the end. This precise atom counting technique has uncovered
some incredible things about our bodies. Ever wonder why an Achilles tendon injury
takes so long to heal? It’s because the tissue turnover is practically
nonexistent. This finding is just one of many other discoveries
thanks to bomb pulse forensics. Cardiomyocytes are the muscle cells of the
heart. We saw that there was turnover, relatively
low like 1% turnover, but it did occur. Why that’s important is that you might be
able to clinically stimulate an injured heart to repair itself. This was huge because previously, we didn’t know adult heart cells could replenish. We found that the only place there seem to
be any turnover of neurons was in the hippocampus. Hippocampus is where our short term memories
become long term memories. And in another study using the bomb pulse,
they uncovered that fat cells are forever. People get new fat cells through adolescence,
and then the body seems to maintain that number. So when you swing through weight gain and
weight loss the number of fat cells is staying the same. But, with all this investigative potential, there’s
a catch. The bomb pulse is essentially going away. But there’s another factor that’s actually
pushing the C-14 lower because we’ve been burning fossil fuels and fossil fuels are
very, very old carbon… it’s actually pushing the C-14 concentration down. The atmosphere will return to pre-bomb levels
by roughly 2025. Until that happens, Bruce and his team are
racing against time to uncover as many new medical findings as they can. Because, no one wants to explode another bomb
for the sake of scientific research.

100 Replies to “We Found Radioactive Traces From Nuclear Bombs in the Mariana Trench”

  1. Why do you guys color the neutrons red? It's almost universally accepted that red are protons, blue are electrons, grey are neutrons.

  2. Talk about keeladi archeological discovery in india

    Keezhadi, also spelt as Keeladi, is a small village near Silaiman on the border between Madurai and Sivagangai districts in Tamil Nadu, India

  3. I like how this video was non-alarmist, unlike other videos out there that makes people panic for no reason. Nuclear bombs still do have negative environmental and health consequences though, you just need to be near enough to them. We can also potentially destroy Earth with just a few of them.

  4. PCB/POP pollution in Marianna trench is much worse, infact the entire trench is filling up with with it and filthier than then the worst polluted river in China.

  5. So you're telling me a little bit of radioactive material is not harmful to the body that's complete bullshit. These fucktards are just hiding the real truth behind why there is radioactive waste in that part of the ocean. All these people do is lie about our past so that they can control our future.

  6. Damn this was a really cool episode. Finding out that adult hearts have the potential to regenerate is mind blowing.

    I hope this team and others working on this research can find a way to extend the 2025 deadline. Without detonating another nuke. ☢️

  7. So the half-life of C14 is nearly 6 thousand years…
    Humans only live for 100 or so max (assuming everything goes right in their lives). The C14 we put into the atmosphere is less than 100 years old still…
    So how the actual ●●●K are they measuring the age of any given alzheimers cell?
    Uh… They make a guess from the amount of C14 that can't breakdown inside anyone's body.

    At any rate C14 is a naturally occurring isotope of carbon…
    SO IT WAS IN THE ATMOSPHERE BEFORE NUCLEAR WEAPONS EXISTED!
    All that adds up to… This video sounded like a waste of time.

  8. No wonder aliens don’t wanna come here, they be like “back in my days, earth was a paradise, it’s a miracle how clean the planet is, but now, everyone is radioactive, no not just everyone, everything”

  9. 1:36 it's not a WE SET OFF but only USA and Russia did…….
    USA world biggest hypocrite and self centred country in the world.

  10. If they find a Chuck Norris meditating at the deepest bottom of Mariana Trench for a seven days, each year, I wouldn't be surprised.

  11. We discovered remaining survives of a genius shrimp race who technologically evolved and eventually almost destroyed themselves atomically. Pentagon took all the remaining surviving genius shrimp members to area 51 and interviewed, dissected and studied the remaining community. Today we still don't know their story or what made them go extinct. Sorry

  12. "Nobody wants to explode another bomb for the sake of scientific research" Ye, there´s plenty other reasons to blow a bomb up

  13. The USA should be blockaded and forcibly dissolved for the proliferation of nuclear weapons and power. No nation that invents such terror should be allowed to persist.

  14. why couldnt you just say "Almost 7 miles deep"? Sure I get the proper language when talking about depth as a distance but it is much easier to picture what 7 miles is.

  15. If the nuclear bombs testing has increased the atmospheric c 14 level by 2 folds, what does this mean for carbon dating of very old organic material, I don't know how they calculate the age of fossils and whether they factor in the doubling of C 14 atmospheric levels in the last century or not, can anyone help me understand?

  16. by 2025 all will be fine, unless the Jesus lovers behind Trump convince him to unleash Armageddon so they can go to heaven.

  17. Why is finding carbon 14 surprising when carbon 14 is in all living creatures? Its what we use for carbon dating. What would be weird is not finding it.

  18. So the Poseidon bomb designed by the Russian that creates a giant wave. Where do you think the will detonate this powerful nuclear weapon. Yes the deepest parts of the ocean. Since they already have this weapon you know it was tested to perfection. Oh and nuclear power plants dumping radioactive waste water into the ocean. Yeah once the ocean dies so will everything else.

  19. And we wonder why cancer is so common… Thanks USA, Russia, China and India for all your satellite mishaps in our atmosphere

  20. Imagine a fision bomb that turned toxic atmospheric atoms into atoms with less greenhouse effect. Essentially we could be bombing the planet clean.

  21. Dude, did you just get here, son? Pravali, Remus, of the University of Bucharest in Romania did a wonderful publication of the same in 2014. His paper from the same year, Nuclear Weapons Tests and Environmental Consequences: A Global Perspective, sheds the much needed light on how nuclear power should never be underestimated. The storage of spent nuclear rods is yet another issue, seeing as how the rods continue to pose a threat even after several years have passed. Dated, though obviously still timeless, the Union of Concerned Scientists outdid themselves by positing, " The spent fuel rods are still highly radioactive and  continue to generate significant heat for decades." Yeah. No one wants that. Otherwise, nice video!

  22. The mariana trench is the deepest, darkest part of ocean. At maximum depth of 11000 meters, its an extreme place for alien-looking creature….

    And there's lies a plastic bag…

  23. So, let’s add the million tons of highly radioactive waste water from Fukushima. Then we can make it even worse in the name of profit

  24. This is also poetry, if you use perhaps the intellect too much, as a ground wire the best therapy is to do the most elementary thing, clean your apartment.

  25. it should not be "we" tested a lot of nuclear weapons, it should be US, RUSSIA etc. who did the actual bombing and should pay humanity for the damages they did

  26. Seeker: No one wants to explode another bomb for the sake of scientific research.
    Kim Jong-un: Hold my bomb and please remove off that ban Trump put over me!

  27. I feel like it should go without saying that there are def people out there who would totally detonate a nuclear bomb in the name of science. Or just shits and giggles. There's some messed up folk in the world…

  28. So what you're saying is, come 2025, we've got to nuke something. So which countries need nuking the most?
    North Korea?
    Saudi Arabia?
    The whole Middle-East?
    Everything?

    Vote now!

  29. Could you guys do a video about how close we are to using neutrinos as a renewable energy source? There’s already a company out there that is trying to achieve that

  30. Yet bombs bullets bonesaws nor hijacked 9/11 jets produce afterlives.
    Stop electing religiou$ narcissists, and you can stop their war$, in advance.

  31. "No one wants to explode another bomb for the sake of scientific research" – I beg the differ! Watching bombs explode is like looking into a fire, relaxing!

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